437
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
The spiral organ, in the
inner ear, has rows of hair
cells, each bearing up to
100 hairs, which translate
sound into neural
messages that travel to
the brain (2,700
×
).
Nervous System
III
Senses
CHAPTER
12
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
12.1 Introduction
1
Dif
erentiate between general senses and special senses.
(p. 438)
12.2 Receptors, Sensation, and Perception
2
Name the F
ve types o± receptors and state the ±unction o± each.
(p. 439)
3
Explain how receptors stimulate sensory impulses. (p. 439)
4
Explain sensation production and adaptation. (p. 439)
12.3 General Senses
5
Describe the dif
erences among receptors associated with the senses
o± touch, pressure, temperature, and pain. (p. 440)
6
Describe how the sensation o± pain is produced. (p. 440)
7
Explain the importance o± stretch receptors in muscles and tendons.
(p. 444)
12.4 Special Senses
8
Explain the relationship between the senses o± smell and taste.
(p. 446)
9
Describe how the sensations o± smell and taste are produced and
interpreted. (p. 446)
10
Name the parts o± the ear and explain the ±unction o± each part.
(p. 450)
11
Distinguish between static and dynamic equilibrium. (p. 459)
12
Describe the roles o± the accessory organs to the eye. (p. 462)
13
Name the parts o± the eye and explain the ±unction o± each part.
(p. 465)
14
Explain how the eye re±racts light. (p. 471)
15
Explain how the brain perceives depth and distance. (p. 475)
16
Describe the visual nerve pathways. (p. 475)
12.5 Life-Span Changes
17
Describe aging-associated changes that diminish the senses. (p. 476)
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
aud-,
to hear:
aud
itory—pertaining to hearing.
choroid,
skinlike:
choroid
coat—middle, vascular layer o± the eye.
cochlea,
snail:
cochlea
—coiled tube in the inner ear.
corn-,
horn:
corn
ea—transparent outer layer in the anterior
portion o± the eye.
iris,
rainbow:
iris
—colored, muscular part o± the eye.
labyrinth,
maze:
labyrinth
—complex system o± connecting
chambers and tubes o± the inner ear.
lacri-,
tears:
lacri
mal gland—tear gland.
lut-,
yellow: macula
lut
ea—yellowish spot on the retina.
macula,
spot:
macula
lutea—yellowish spot on the retina.
malle-,
hammer:
malle
us—one o± the three bones in the middle
ear.
ocul-,
eye: orbicularis
ocul
i—muscle associated with the eyelid.
olfact-,
to smell:
olfact
ory—pertaining to the sense o± smell.
palpebra,
eyelid: levator
palpebra
e superioris—muscle
associated with the eyelid.
photo-,
light:
photo
receptors—specialized structures in the eye
responsive to light.
scler-,
hard:
scler
a—tough, outer protective layer o± the eye.
therm-,
heat:
therm
oreceptor—receptor sensitive to changes in
temperature.
tympan-,
drum:
tympan
ic membrane—eardrum.
vitre-,
glass:
vitre
ous humor—clear, jellylike substance within the
eye.
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