7. Terminating actions of autonomic neurotransmitters
a. Acetylcholinesterase breaks down Ach.
b. Norepinephrine is transported back into
8. Control of autonomic activity
a. The central nervous system largely controls the
autonomic nervous system.
b. The medulla oblongata uses autonomic F
to regulate cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory
c. The hypothalamus uses autonomic F
regulating visceral functions.
d. The limbic system and cerebral cortex control
emotional responses through the autonomic
LIFE-SPAN CHANGES (PAGE 431)
Aging of the nervous system is a gradual elimination of
cells and, eventually, slowed functioning.
1. Apoptosis of brain neurons begins before birth.
2. Neuron loss among brain regions is uneven.
3. In adulthood, numbers of dendrites in the cerebral
cortex fall, as more generally neurotransmission slows.
4. Nervous system changes in older persons increase the
risk of falling.
5. Sleep problems are common in the later years.
4. Parasympathetic division includes the
bers that begin in the brainstem
and sacral region of the spinal cord and synapse
in ganglia near various organs or in the organs
5. Autonomic neurotransmitters
a. Sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic
bers secrete acetylcholine.
b. Most sympathetic postganglionic F
norepinephrine and are adrenergic; postganglionic
bers secrete acetylcholine and
c. The different effects of the autonomic divisions
are due to the different neurotransmitters the
6. Actions of autonomic neurotransmitters
a. Neurotransmitters combine with receptors and
alter cell membranes.
b. There are two types of cholinergic receptors and
two types of adrenergic receptors.
c. How cells respond to neurotransmitters depends
upon the number and type of receptors in their
d. Acetylcholine acts very brieﬂ
y; norepinephrine and
epinephrine may have more prolonged effects.
Explain the general functions of the brain, spinal cord,
and brainstem, and their interrelationship. (p. 384)
Name the layers of the meninges, and explain their
functions. (p. 384)
11.3 Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid
Describe the relationship among the cerebrospinal
uid, the ventricles, the choroid plexuses, and arachnoid
granulations. (p. 385)
List the functions of cerebrospinal F
uid. (p. 386)
11.4 Spinal Cord
Describe the structure of the spinal cord. (p. 387)
Explain the two main functions of the spinal cord. (p. 389)
Distinguish between a reF
ex arc and a reF
ex. (p. 389)
Which of the choices is the correct sequence of events in
ex arc? (p. 389)
ectors to motor neurons to interneurons to CNS to
b. sensory receptor to CNS to interneurons to motor
neurons to e±
ectors to CNS to interneurons to motor neurons to
d. sensory receptor to motor neurons to CNS to in-
terneurons to e±
Describe a withdrawal reF
ex. (p. 390)
Indicate whether each nerve tract is ascending or
descending: (p. 393)
d. fasciculus gracilis
Explain the consequences of nerve ²
bers crossing over.
Describe the events of brain development. (p. 398)
Which choice lists the parts of the brainstem? (p. 398)
a. midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
b. forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain
c. sulci and ²
d. frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes
Describe the structure of the cerebrum. (p. 398)
Describe the location and function of the sensory areas of
the cortex. (p. 401)
Explain the function of the association areas of the lobes
of the cerebrum. (p. 402)
Describe the location and function of the motor areas of
the cortex. (p. 402)
Broca’s area controls
____________. (p. 402)
c. understanding grammar
d. movements used in speaking