434
UNIT THREE
7. Terminating actions of autonomic neurotransmitters
a. Acetylcholinesterase breaks down Ach.
b. Norepinephrine is transported back into
presynaptic neurons.
8. Control of autonomic activity
a. The central nervous system largely controls the
autonomic nervous system.
b. The medulla oblongata uses autonomic F
bers
to regulate cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory
activities.
c. The hypothalamus uses autonomic F
bers in
regulating visceral functions.
d. The limbic system and cerebral cortex control
emotional responses through the autonomic
nervous system.
11.8
LIFE-SPAN CHANGES (PAGE 431)
Aging of the nervous system is a gradual elimination of
cells and, eventually, slowed functioning.
1. Apoptosis of brain neurons begins before birth.
2. Neuron loss among brain regions is uneven.
3. In adulthood, numbers of dendrites in the cerebral
cortex fall, as more generally neurotransmission slows.
4. Nervous system changes in older persons increase the
risk of falling.
5. Sleep problems are common in the later years.
4. Parasympathetic division includes the
parasympathetic F
bers that begin in the brainstem
and sacral region of the spinal cord and synapse
in ganglia near various organs or in the organs
themselves.
5. Autonomic neurotransmitters
a. Sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic
F
bers secrete acetylcholine.
b. Most sympathetic postganglionic F
bers secrete
norepinephrine and are adrenergic; postganglionic
parasympathetic F
bers secrete acetylcholine and
are cholinergic.
c. The different effects of the autonomic divisions
are due to the different neurotransmitters the
postganglionic F
bers release.
6. Actions of autonomic neurotransmitters
a. Neurotransmitters combine with receptors and
alter cell membranes.
b. There are two types of cholinergic receptors and
two types of adrenergic receptors.
c. How cells respond to neurotransmitters depends
upon the number and type of receptors in their
membranes.
d. Acetylcholine acts very briefl
y; norepinephrine and
epinephrine may have more prolonged effects.
11.1 Introduction
1
Explain the general functions of the brain, spinal cord,
and brainstem, and their interrelationship. (p. 384)
11.2 Meninges
2
Name the layers of the meninges, and explain their
functions. (p. 384)
11.3 Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid
3
Describe the relationship among the cerebrospinal
F
uid, the ventricles, the choroid plexuses, and arachnoid
granulations. (p. 385)
4
List the functions of cerebrospinal F
uid. (p. 386)
11.4 Spinal Cord
5
Describe the structure of the spinal cord. (p. 387)
6
Explain the two main functions of the spinal cord. (p. 389)
7
Distinguish between a reF
ex arc and a reF
ex. (p. 389)
8
Which of the choices is the correct sequence of events in
a reF
ex arc? (p. 389)
a. e±
ectors to motor neurons to interneurons to CNS to
sensory receptor
b. sensory receptor to CNS to interneurons to motor
neurons to e±
ectors
c. e±
ectors to CNS to interneurons to motor neurons to
sensory receptor
d. sensory receptor to motor neurons to CNS to in-
terneurons to e±
ectors
9
Describe a withdrawal reF
ex. (p. 390)
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
10
Indicate whether each nerve tract is ascending or
descending: (p. 393)
a. rubrospinal
d. fasciculus gracilis
b. corticospinal
e. reticulospinal
c. spinothalamic
f. spinocerebellar
11
Explain the consequences of nerve ²
bers crossing over.
(p. 394)
11.5 Brain
12
Describe the events of brain development. (p. 398)
13
Which choice lists the parts of the brainstem? (p. 398)
a. midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
b. forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain
c. sulci and ²
ssures
d. frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes
14
Describe the structure of the cerebrum. (p. 398)
15
De²
ne
cerebral cortex.
(p. 400)
16
Describe the location and function of the sensory areas of
the cortex. (p. 401)
17
Explain the function of the association areas of the lobes
of the cerebrum. (p. 402)
18
Describe the location and function of the motor areas of
the cortex. (p. 402)
19
Broca’s area controls
____________. (p. 402)
a. memory
b. defecation
c. understanding grammar
d. movements used in speaking
scend
ng o
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