428
UNIT THREE
divisions all secrete acetylcholine, and for this reason they are
called
cholinergic
(ko
lin-er
jik). The parasympathetic post-
ganglionic F bers are also cholinergic (One exception, para-
sympathetic neurons that secrete nitric oxide, is described
in chapter 22, p. 844.) Most sympathetic postganglionic neu-
Autonomic Neurotransmitters
The different postganglionic neurotransmitters (mediators)
are responsible for the different effects that the sympathetic
and parasympathetic divisions have on organs. The pregan-
glionic neurons of the sympathetic and parasympathetic
Lacrimal
gland
Parotid
gland
Heart
Trachea
Lung
Gallbladder
Liver
Stomach
Spleen
Pancreas
Small intestine
Large intestine
Urinary
bladder
Kidney
Uterus
Scrotum
Spinal
cord
Pelvic
nerves
Superior
hypogastric
plexus
Inferior
hypogastric
plexus
Celiac
plexus
Cardiac and
pulmonary
plexuses
Cranial nerve X
(Vagus)
Cranial
nerve IX
Cranial
nerve
VII
Submandibular
ganglion
Otic ganglion
Ciliary ganglion
Eye
Sphenopalatine
ganglion
Cranial
nerve III
Penis
Ovary
Submandibular
and sublingual
glands
Postganglionic
neuron
Preganglionic
neuron
FIGURE 11.39
The preganglionic f
bers oF the parasympathetic division oF the autonomic nervous system arise From the brain and sacral region
oF the spinal cord.
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