14
UNIT ONE
In the abdominopelvic cavity, the membranes are
called
peritoneal
(per
-ı˘-to-ne
al)
membranes.
A
parietal
peritoneum
lines the wall of the abdominopelvic cavity,
and a
visceral peritoneum
covers most of the organs in the
abdominopelvic cavity. The potential space between these
membranes is called the
peritoneal cavity
(f
g. 1.12)
.
PRACTICE
17
What are the viscera?
18
Which organs occupy the thoracic cavity? The abdominal cavity?
The pelvic cavity?
19
Name the cavities of the head.
20
Describe the membranes associated with the thoracic and
abdominopelvic cavities.
21
Distinguish between the parietal and visceral peritoneum.
Organ Systems
The human organism consists of several organ systems,
each of which includes a set of interrelated organs that
work together to provide specialized functions. The mainte-
nance of homeostasis depends on the coordination of organ
systems. A F
gure called
“InnerConnections”
at the end of
some chapters ties together the ways in which organ sys-
tems interact. As you read about each organ system, you
may want to consult the illustrations and cadaver photos of
the human torso in reference plates 1–25 at the end of this
chapter (pp. 31–49) and locate some of the features listed
in the descriptions.
Body Covering
The organs of the
integumentary
(in-teg-u-men
tar-e)
system
(f g. 1.13)
include the skin and accessory organs such as the
hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands. These parts
protect underlying tissues, help regulate body temperature,
house a variety of sensory receptors, and synthesize certain
products. Chapter 6 discusses the integumentary system.
Support and Movement
The organs of the skeletal and muscular systems support and
move body parts. The
skeletal
(skel
e
˘-tal)
system
(f g. 1.14)
consists of the bones as well as the ligaments and carti-
lages that bind bones together at joints. These parts provide
frameworks and protective shields for softer tissues, serve
as attachments for muscles, and act together with muscles
when body parts move. Tissues within bones also produce
blood cells and store inorganic salts.
The muscles are the organs of the
muscular
(mus
ku-
lar)
system
(F g. 1.14). By contracting and pulling their ends
closer together, muscles provide the forces that move body
parts. Muscles also help maintain posture and are the pri-
mary source of body heat. Chapters 7, 8, and 9 discuss the
skeletal and muscular systems.
Frontal sinuses
Orbital cavities
Nasal cavity
Oral cavity
Cranial cavity
Sphenoidal sinus
Middle ear cavity
FIGURE 1.10
The cavities in the head include the cranial, oral, nasal, orbital, and middle ear cavities, as well as several sinuses.
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