382
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
cephal-,
head: en
cephal
itis—inf
ammation oF the brain.
chiasm-,
cross: optic
chiasm
a—X-shaped structure produced by
the crossing over oF optic nerve ±
bers.
f
acc-,
f
abby:
f
acc
id paralysis—paralysis characterized by loss oF
tone in muscles innervated by damaged axons.
Funi-,
small cord or ±
ber:
Funi
culus—major nerve tract or bundle
oF myelinated axons within the spinal cord.
gangli-,
swelling:
gangli
on—mass oF neuron cell bodies.
mening-,
membrane:
mening
es—membranous coverings oF the
brain and spinal cord.
plex-,
interweaving: choroid
plex
us—mass oF specialized
capillaries associated with spaces in the brain.
Falsely colored scanning
electron micrograph
(SEM) of a single neuron
of the human cerebral
cortex—the outer gray
matter of the brain (7,200
×
).
Nervous
System II
Divisions of the
Nervous System
LEARNING OUTCOMES
AFter you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
11.1 Introduction
1
Describe the relationship among the brain, brainstem, and spinal
cord. (p. 384)
11.2 Meninges
2
Describe the coverings oF the brain and spinal cord. (p. 384)
11.3 Ventricles and Cerebrospinal ±luid
3
Discuss the Formation and Function oF cerebrospinal f
uid. (p. 386)
11.4 Spinal Cord
4
Describe the structure oF the spinal cord and its major Functions. (p. 389)
5
Describe a ref
ex arc and ref
ex behavior. (p. 389)
11.5 Brain
6
Describe the development oF the major parts oF the brain and explain
the Functions oF each part. (p. 398)
7
Distinguish among motor, sensory, and association areas oF the cere-
bral cortex. (p. 401)
8
Discuss hemisphere dominance. (p. 403)
9
Explain the stages in memory storage. (p. 404)
10
Explain the Functions oF the limbic system and the reticular Formation.
(p. 407)
11.6 Peripheral Nervous System
11
Distinguish between the major parts oF the peripheral nervous sys-
tem. (p. 411)
12
Describe the structure oF a peripheral nerve and how its ±
bers are
classi±
ed. (p. 412)
13
IdentiFy the cranial nerves and list their major Functions. (p. 414)
14
Explain how spinal nerves are named and their Functions. (p. 418)
11.7 Autonomic Nervous System
15
Characterize the autonomic nervous system. (p. 424)
16
Distinguish between the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divi-
sions oF the autonomic nervous system. (p. 425)
17
Describe a sympathetic and a parasympathetic nerve pathway. (p. 426)
18
Explain how the autonomic neurotransmitters di²
erently a²
ect vis-
ceral e²
ectors. (p. 428)
11.8 LiFe-Span Changes
19
Describe aging-associated changes in the nervous system. (p. 431)
CHAPTER
11
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