ammation oF the brain.
a—X-shaped structure produced by
the crossing over oF optic nerve ±
id paralysis—paralysis characterized by loss oF
tone in muscles innervated by damaged axons.
small cord or ±
culus—major nerve tract or bundle
oF myelinated axons within the spinal cord.
on—mass oF neuron cell bodies.
es—membranous coverings oF the
brain and spinal cord.
us—mass oF specialized
capillaries associated with spaces in the brain.
Falsely colored scanning
(SEM) of a single neuron
of the human cerebral
cortex—the outer gray
matter of the brain (7,200
Divisions of the
AFter you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
Describe the relationship among the brain, brainstem, and spinal
cord. (p. 384)
Describe the coverings oF the brain and spinal cord. (p. 384)
11.3 Ventricles and Cerebrospinal ±luid
Discuss the Formation and Function oF cerebrospinal f
uid. (p. 386)
11.4 Spinal Cord
Describe the structure oF the spinal cord and its major Functions. (p. 389)
Describe a ref
ex arc and ref
ex behavior. (p. 389)
Describe the development oF the major parts oF the brain and explain
the Functions oF each part. (p. 398)
Distinguish among motor, sensory, and association areas oF the cere-
bral cortex. (p. 401)
Discuss hemisphere dominance. (p. 403)
Explain the stages in memory storage. (p. 404)
Explain the Functions oF the limbic system and the reticular Formation.
11.6 Peripheral Nervous System
Distinguish between the major parts oF the peripheral nervous sys-
tem. (p. 411)
Describe the structure oF a peripheral nerve and how its ±
ed. (p. 412)
IdentiFy the cranial nerves and list their major Functions. (p. 414)
Explain how spinal nerves are named and their Functions. (p. 418)
11.7 Autonomic Nervous System
Characterize the autonomic nervous system. (p. 424)
Distinguish between the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divi-
sions oF the autonomic nervous system. (p. 425)
Describe a sympathetic and a parasympathetic nerve pathway. (p. 426)
Explain how the autonomic neurotransmitters di²
ectors. (p. 428)
11.8 LiFe-Span Changes
Describe aging-associated changes in the nervous system. (p. 431)