353
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
These progenitor cells
(green) will give rise to
astrocytes that supply
neurons with nutrients.
Cell nuclei are stained blue.
Immunofl uorescent light
micrograph (1,150
×
).
Thes
(gree
astro
neur
Cell
Imm
micr
se progenitor cells
The
Nervous
System I
Basic Structure
and Function
CHAPTER
10
UNIT III
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
astr-,
starlike:
astr
ocyte—star-shaped neuroglial cell.
ax-,
axle:
ax
on—cylindrical nerve process that carries impulses
away from a neuron cell body.
bi-,
two:
bi
polar neuron—neuron with two processes extending
from the cell body.
dendr-,
tree:
dendr
ite—branched nerve process that serves as
the receptor surface of a neuron.
ependym-,
tunic:
ependym
a—neuroglial cells that line spaces in
the brain and spinal cord.
-lemm,
rind or peel: neuri
lemm
a—sheath that surrounds the
myelin of a nerve cell process.
moto-,
moving:
moto
r neuron—neuron that stimulates a muscle
to contract or a gland to release a secretion.
multi-,
many:
multi
polar neuron—neuron with many processes
extending from the cell body.
oligo-,
few:
oligo
dendrocyte—small neuroglial cell with few
cellular processes.
peri-,
all around:
peri
pheral nervous system—portion of the
nervous system that consists of the nerves branching from
the brain and spinal cord.
saltator-,
a dancer:
saltator
y conduction—nerve impulse
conduction in which the impulse seems to jump from node
to node along the nerve F
ber.
sens-,
feeling:
sens
ory neuron—neuron that can be stimulated by
a sensory receptor and conducts impulses into the brain or
spinal cord.
syn-,
together:
syn
apse—junction between two neurons.
uni-,
one:
uni
polar—neuron with only one process extending
from the cell body.
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to
10.1 Introduction
1
Describe the general functions of the nervous system. (p. 354)
2
Identify the two types of cells that comprise nervous tissue. (p. 354)
3
Identify the two major groups of nervous system organs. (p. 354)
10.2 General Functions of the Nervous System
4
List the functions of sensory receptors. (p. 355)
5
Describe how the nervous system responds to stimuli. (p. 355)
10.3 Description of Cells of the Nervous System
6
Describe the parts of a neuron. (p. 356)
7
Describe the relationships among myelin, the neurilemma, and nodes
of Ranvier. (p. 358)
8
Distinguish between the sources of white matter and gray matter. (p. 358)
10.4 Classi±
cation of Cells of the Nervous System
9
Identify structural and functional di±
erences among neurons. (p. 359)
10
Identify the types of neuroglia in the central nervous system and their
functions. (p. 361)
11
Describe the role of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system.
(p. 363)
10.5 The Synapse
12
Explain how information passes from a presynaptic neuron to a post-
synaptic cell. (p. 365)
10.6 Cell Membrane Potential
13
Explain how a cell membrane becomes polarized. (p. 365)
14
Describe the events leading to and the conduction of a nerve impulse.
(p. 368)
15
Compare nerve impulse conduction in myelinated and unmyelinated
neurons. (p. 371)
10.7 Synaptic Transmission
16
Identify the changes in membrane potential associated with excit-
atory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. (p. 371)
17
Explain what prevents a postsynaptic cell from being continuously
stimulated. (p. 374)
10.8 Impulse Processing
18
Describe the basic ways in which the nervous system processes infor-
mation. (p. 374)
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