337
CHAPTER NINE
Muscular System
10. Muscles that move the thigh
a. These muscles are attached to the femur and to
some part of the pelvic girdle.
b. They include the psoas major, iliacus, gluteus
maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus,
piriformis, tensor fasciae latae, pectineus, adductor
brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus, and
gracilis.
11. Muscles that move the leg
a. These muscles connect the tibia or F
bula to the
femur or pelvic girdle.
b. They include the biceps femoris, semitendinosus,
semimembranosus, sartorius, rectus femoris,
vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus
intermedius.
12. Muscles that move the foot
a. These muscles attach the femur, tibia, and F
bula to
various bones of the foot.
b. They include the tibialis anterior, F
bularis tertius,
extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis
longus, gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris, fl
exor
digitorum longus, tibialis posterior, and F
bularis
longus.
c. Retinacula form sheaths for tendons passing to the
foot.
9.9
LIFE-SPAN CHANGES (PAGE 334)
1. Beginning in one’s forties, supplies of ATP,
myoglobin, and creatine phosphate begin to decline.
2. By age eighty, muscle mass may be halved. Refl exes
slow. Adipose cells and connective tissue replace
some muscle tissue.
3. Exercise is beneF
cial in maintaining muscle function.
5. Muscles that move the arm
a. These muscles connect the humerus to various
regions of the pectoral girdle, ribs, and vertebral
column.
b. They include the coracobrachialis, pectoralis
major, teres major, latissimus dorsi, supraspinatus,
deltoid, subscapularis, infraspinatus, and teres
minor.
6. Muscles that move the forearm
a. These muscles connect the radius and ulna to the
humerus and pectoral girdle.
b. They include the biceps brachii, brachialis,
brachioradialis, triceps brachii, supinator, pronator
teres, and pronator quadratus.
7. Muscles that move the hand
a. These muscles arise from the distal end of the
humerus and from the radius and ulna.
b. They include the fl
exor carpi radialis, fl
exor
carpi ulnaris, palmaris longus, fl
exor digitorum
profundus, fl
exor digitorum superF
cialis, extensor
carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis,
extensor carpi ulnaris, and extensor digitorum.
c. An extensor retinaculum forms sheaths for tendons
of the extensor muscles.
8. Muscles of the abdominal wall
a. These muscles connect the rib cage and vertebral
column to the pelvic girdle.
b. They include the external oblique, internal oblique,
transversus abdominis, and rectus abdominis.
9. Muscles of the pelvic outlet
a. These muscles form the fl oor of the pelvic cavity
and F
ll the space of the pubic arch.
b. They include the levator ani, coccygeus,
superF
cial transversus perinei, bulbospongiosus,
ischiocavernosus, and sphincter urethrae.
PART A
9.1 Introduction
1
List three outcomes of muscle actions. (p. 285)
9.2 Structure of a Skeletal Muscle
2
Describe the diF
erence between a tendon and an
aponeurosis. (p. 285)
3
Describe how connective tissue is part of the structure of
a skeletal muscle. (p. 286)
4
Distinguish among deep fascia, subcutaneous fascia, and
subserous fascia. (p. 287)
5
Identify the major parts of a skeletal muscle ±
ber and
describe the functions of each. (p. 287)
9.3 Skeletal Muscle Contraction
6
Describe the neuromuscular junction. (p. 289)
7
De±
ne
motor unit
and explain how the number of ±
bers
in a unit aF
ects muscular contractions. (p. 290)
8
Describe the neural control of skeletal muscle
contraction. (p. 290)
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
9
A neurotransmitter ________________.
(p. 290)
a. binds actin ±
laments, causing them to slide
b. diF
uses across a synaptic cleft from a neuron to a
muscle cell
c. transports ATP across the synaptic cleft
d. breaks down acetylcholine at the synapse
e. is a contractile protein in the muscle ±
ber
10
Identify the major events that occur during skeletal
muscle ±
ber contraction. (p. 291)
11
Explain how ATP and creatine phosphate function in
skeletal muscle ±
ber contraction. (p. 292)
12
Describe how oxygen is supplied to skeletal muscle.
(p. 294)
13
Describe how oxygen debt may develop. (p. 295)
14
Explain how a muscle may become fatigued, and how
a person’s physical condition may aF
ect tolerance to
fatigue. (p. 296)
(p
90
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