vertebral column, and the lower f
bers draw the scapula and
shoulder downward. When other muscles f
x the shoulder in
position, the trapezius can pull the head backward or to one
side (see f
vertebral column to the scapula. Both retract and elevate the
scapula. Rhomboid major can also rotate the scapula down-
ward (see f
ze-us) is a large, triangular mus-
cle in the upper back that extends horizontally From the base
oF the skull and the cervical and thoracic vertebrae to the
shoulder. Its f bers are organized into three groups—upper,
middle, and lower. Together these f bers rotate the scapula.
The upper f bers acting alone raise the scapula and shoulder,
as when the shoulders are shrugged to express a Feeling oF
indiFFerence. The middle f bers pull the scapula toward the
Muscles of the shoulder and back. (
) Muscles of the posterior shoulder. The right trapezius is removed to show underlying muscles.
Isolated views of (
) trapezius, (
) deltoid, and (
) rhomboid and latissimus dorsi muscles.