Our brain enables us to
learn, to practice, and to
assess our understanding—
whether of a textbook, or
how to handle a medical
to hang something:
icular—pertaining to the
upper limbs and lower limbs.
um—membrane that surrounds the heart.
um—largest part of the brain.
ial—pertaining to the part of the skull that
surrounds the brain.
al—position toward the back of the body.
stasis—maintenance of a stable internal
the study of: physio
—study of body functions.
bolism—chemical changes that occur within
al—pertaining to the nose.
ital—pertaining to the portion of skull that
encircles an eye.
al membrane—membrane that lines the wall
of a cavity.
ic cavity—basin-shaped cavity enclosed by the
cardial membrane—membrane that surrounds
al membrane—membrane that encloses the
lungs within the rib cage.
standing still: homeo
—maintenance of a stable
ior—referring to a body part located above
—study of structure, which often
involves cutting or removing body parts.
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
Identify some of the early discoveries that lead to our current under-
standing of the human body. (p. 3)
1.2 Anatomy and Physiology
Explain how anatomy and physiology are related. (p. 4)
1.3 Levels of Organization
List the levels of organization in the human body and the characteris-
tics of each. (p. 4)
1.4 Characteristics of Life
List and describe the major characteristics of life. (p. 6)
Give examples of
. (p. 6)
1.5 Maintenance of Life
List and describe the major requirements of organisms. (p. 7)
Explain the importance of homeostasis to survival. (p. 9)
Describe the parts of a homeostatic mechanism and explain how they
function together. (p. 9)
1.6 Organization of the Human Body
Identify the locations of the major body cavities. (p. 12)
List the organs located in each major body cavity. (p. 12)
Name and identify the locations of the membranes associated with
the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities. (p. 12)
Name the major organ systems, and list the organs associated with
each. (p. 14)
Describe the general function of each organ system. (p. 14)
1.7 Life-Span Changes
For each decade of life, identify the levels of organization in the body
at which aging occurs. (p. 20)
1.8 Anatomical Terminology
Properly use the terms that describe relative positions, body sections,
and body regions. (p. 21)