1
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
Our brain enables us to
learn, to practice, and to
assess our understanding—
whether of a textbook, or
how to handle a medical
emergency.
Introduction
to Human
Anatomy and
Physiology
CHAPTER
1
UNIT ONE
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
1
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
append-,
to hang something:
append
icular—pertaining to the
upper limbs and lower limbs.
cardi-,
heart: peri
cardi
um—membrane that surrounds the heart.
cerebr-,
brain:
cerebr
um—largest part of the brain.
cran-,
helmet:
cran
ial—pertaining to the part of the skull that
surrounds the brain.
dors-,
back:
dors
al—position toward the back of the body.
homeo-,
same:
homeo
stasis—maintenance of a stable internal
environment.
-logy,
the study of: physio
logy
—study of body functions.
meta-,
change:
meta
bolism—chemical changes that occur within
the body.
nas-,
nose:
nas
al—pertaining to the nose.
orb-,
circle:
orb
ital—pertaining to the portion of skull that
encircles an eye.
pariet-,
wall:
pariet
al membrane—membrane that lines the wall
of a cavity.
pelv-,
basin:
pelv
ic cavity—basin-shaped cavity enclosed by the
pelvic bones.
peri-,
around:
peri
cardial membrane—membrane that surrounds
the heart.
pleur-,
rib:
pleur
al membrane—membrane that encloses the
lungs within the rib cage.
-stasis,
standing still: homeo
stasis
—maintenance of a stable
internal environment.
super-,
above:
super
ior—referring to a body part located above
another.
-tomy,
cutting: ana
tomy
—study of structure, which often
involves cutting or removing body parts.
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
1.1 Introduction
1
Identify some of the early discoveries that lead to our current under-
standing of the human body. (p. 3)
1.2 Anatomy and Physiology
2
Explain how anatomy and physiology are related. (p. 4)
1.3 Levels of Organization
3
List the levels of organization in the human body and the characteris-
tics of each. (p. 4)
1.4 Characteristics of Life
4
List and describe the major characteristics of life. (p. 6)
5
Give examples of
metabolism
. (p. 6)
1.5 Maintenance of Life
6
List and describe the major requirements of organisms. (p. 7)
7
Explain the importance of homeostasis to survival. (p. 9)
8
Describe the parts of a homeostatic mechanism and explain how they
function together. (p. 9)
1.6 Organization of the Human Body
9
Identify the locations of the major body cavities. (p. 12)
10
List the organs located in each major body cavity. (p. 12)
11
Name and identify the locations of the membranes associated with
the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities. (p. 12)
12
Name the major organ systems, and list the organs associated with
each. (p. 14)
13
Describe the general function of each organ system. (p. 14)
1.7 Life-Span Changes
14
For each decade of life, identify the levels of organization in the body
at which aging occurs. (p. 20)
1.8 Anatomical Terminology
15
Properly use the terms that describe relative positions, body sections,
and body regions. (p. 21)
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