284
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
Falsely colored scanning
electron micrograph
(SEM) of a normal human
striated muscle ± ber
reveals the characteristic
banding pattern of the
myo± brils (3,000
×
).
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
9.1 Introduction
1
List various outcomes of muscle actions (p. 285)
9.2 Structure of a Skeletal Muscle
2
Describe the structure of a skeletal muscle. (p. 285)
3
Name the major parts of a skeletal muscle F
ber and describe the func-
tions of each. (p. 287)
9.3 Skeletal Muscle Contraction
4
Describe the neural control of skeletal muscle contraction (p. 289)
5
Identify the major events of skeletal muscle F
ber contraction. (p. 291)
6
List the energy sources for skeletal muscle F
ber contraction. (p. 294)
7
Describe oxygen debt. (p. 295)
8
Describe how a muscle may become fatigued. (p. 296)
9.4 Muscular Responses
9
Distinguish between a twitch and a sustained contraction. (p. 296)
10
Explain how various types of muscular contractions produce body
movements and help maintain posture. (p. 298)
11
Distinguish between fast and slow twitch muscle F
bers. (p. 299)
9.5 Smooth Muscles
12
Distinguish between the structures and functions of multiunit smooth
muscle and visceral smooth muscle. (p. 300)
13
Compare the contraction mechanisms of skeletal and smooth muscle
F
bers. (p. 301)
9.6 Cardiac Muscle
14
Compare the contraction mechanisms of skeletal and cardiac muscle
F
bers. (p. 301)
9.7 Skeletal Muscle Actions
15
Explain how the attachments, locations, and interactions of skeletal
muscles make possible certain movements. (p. 301)
9.8 Major Skeletal Muscles
16
Identify and locate the skeletal muscles of each body region and
describe the action(s) of each muscle. (p. 305)
9.9 Life-Span Changes
17
Describe aging-related changes in the muscular system. (p. 334)
18
Discuss how exercise can help maintain a healthy muscular system as
the body ages. (p. 334)
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
calat-,
something inserted: inter
calat
ed disc—membranous
band that connects cardiac muscle cells.
erg-,
work: syn
erg
ist—muscle that works with a prime mover,
producing a movement.
fasc-,
bundle:
fasc
iculus—bundle of muscle F
bers.
-gram,
something written: myo
gram
—recording of a muscular
contraction.
hyper-,
over, more: muscular
hyper
trophy—enlargement of
muscle F
bers.
inter-,
between:
inter
calated disc—membranous band that
connects cardiac muscle cells.
iso-,
equal:
iso
tonic contraction—contraction during which the
tension in a muscle remains unchanged.
laten-,
hidden:
laten
t period—period between a stimulus and the
beginning of a muscle contraction.
myo-,
muscle:
myo
F
bril—contractile F
ber of a muscle cell.
reticul-,
a net: sarcoplasmic
reticul
um—network of membranous
channels within a muscle F
ber.
sarco-,
±
esh:
sarco
plasm—substance (cytoplasm) within a muscle
F
ber.
syn-,
together:
syn
ergist—muscle that works with a prime mover,
producing a movement.
tetan-,
sti²
:
tetan
ic contraction—sustained muscular contraction.
-tonic,
stretched: iso
tonic
contraction—contraction during which
the tension of a muscle remains unchanged.
-troph,
well fed: muscular hyper
troph
y—enlargement of muscle
F
bers.
voluntar-,
of one’s free will:
voluntar
y muscle—muscle that can
be controlled by conscious e²
ort.
False
elect
(SEM
stria
reve
band
myo
LEARNING OUTCOME
S
Muscular
System
CHAPTER
9
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