4. Knee joint
a. The knee joint includes two condylar joints
between the femur and the tibia and a plane joint
between the femur and the patella.
b. Ligaments and tendons strengthen the thin joint
c. Several ligaments, some in the joint capsule, bind
d. Two menisci separate the articulating surfaces of
the femur and the tibia.
e. Several bursae are associated with the knee joint.
f. The knee joint permits ﬂ
exion and extension;
when the lower limb is ﬂ
exed at the knee, some
rotation is possible.
LIFE-SPAN CHANGES (PAGE 278)
1. Joint stiffness is often the earliest sign of aging.
a. Collagen changes cause the feeling of stiffness.
b. Regular exercise can lessen the effects.
2. Fibrous joints are the ±
rst to begin to change and
strengthen over a lifetime.
3. Synchondroses of the long bones disappear with
growth and development.
4. Changes in symphysis joints of the vertebral column
exibility and decrease height.
5. Over time, synovial joints lose elasticity.
b. A cylindrical joint capsule envelops the joint.
(1) The capsule is loose and by itself cannot keep
the articular surfaces together.
(2) It is reinforced by surrounding muscles and
c. Several ligaments help prevent displacement of the
d. Several bursae are associated with the shoulder
e. Its parts are loosely attached, so the shoulder joint
permits a wide range of movements.
2. Elbow joint
a. The elbow has a hinge joint between the humerus
and the ulna and a plane joint between the
humerus and the radius.
b. Collateral ligaments reinforce the joint capsule.
c. A synovial membrane partially divides the joint
cavity into two portions.
d. The joint between the humerus and the ulna
exion and extension only.
3. Hip joint
a. The hip joint is a ball-and-socket joint between the
femur and the hip bone.
b. A ring of ± brocartilage deepens the cavity of the
c. The articular surfaces are held together by a heavy
joint capsule reinforced by ligaments.
d. The hip joint permits a wide variety of movements.
Functions of joints include ___________________ . (p. 261)
a. binding skeletal parts
b. allowing for bone growth
c. permitting the skeleton to change shape during child-
d. enabling movement in response to skeletal muscle
e. all of the above.
cation oF Joints
Describe how joints are classi±
ed. (p. 261)
Compare the structure of a ±
brous joint with that of a
cartilaginous joint. (p. 261)
A ______________ is a ±
brous joint with bones bound by
long connective tissue ±
bers, whereas a ______________
is a ±
brous joint where ²
at bones are united by a thin
layer of connective tissue. (p. 261)
Describe a gomphosis, and name an example. (p. 262)
Compare the structures of a synchondrosis and a
symphysis. (p. 262)
Explain how the joints between vertebrae permit
movement. (p. 262)
8.3 General Structure oF a Synovial Joint
Draw the general structure of a synovial joint, labeling all
the main parts. (p. 263)
Describe how a joint capsule may be reinforced. (p. 264)
Explain the function of a synovial membrane. (p. 264)
Explain the function of synovial ²
uid. (p. 264)
8.4 Types oF Synovial Joints
Describe the six types of synovial joints, and name an
example of each type. (p. 265)
Describe the movements permitted by each type of
synovial joint. (p. 265)
8.5 Types oF Joint Movements
Joint movements occur when a muscle contracts and
the muscle ±
bers pull the muscle’s movable end of
attachment, the ____________________ , toward its ±
end, the ______________________ . (p. 267)