277
CHAPTER EIGHT
Joints of the Skeletal System
PRACTICE
17
Which structures help keep the articulating surfaces of the hip
together?
18
What types of movement does the structure of the hip permit?
19
What types of joints are in the knee?
20
Which parts help hold together the articulating surfaces of the knee?
the patella and the skin; and a smaller
infrapatellar bursa
between the proximal end of the tibia and the patellar liga-
ment (see F
g. 8.8).
As with a hinge joint, the basic structure of the knee joint
permits fl
exion and extension. However, when the knee is
fl exed, rotation is also possible. Clinical Application 8.2 dis-
cusses some common joint disorders.
Femur
Quadriceps femoris tendon
(patellar tendon)
Synovial membrane
Suprapatellar bursa
Patella
Prepatellar bursa
Joint cavity
Articular cartilage
Menisci
Patellar ligament
Infrapatellar bursa
Joint capsule
Tibia
(a)
Anterior cruciate
ligament
Femur
(b)
Lateral condyle
Lateral meniscus
Articular
cartilage
Lateral
condyle
Head of fibula
Tibia
Fibula
FIGURE 8.20
Knee joint. (
a
) The knee joint is the most complex of the synovial joints (sagittal section). (
b
) Photograph of the left knee joint (frontal
section).
Gastroc-
nemius
muscle
(cut)
Popliteus
muscle
(cut)
Oblique
popliteal
ligament
Arcuate
popliteal
ligament
Fibula
Tibia
Femur
Joint
capsule
Fibular
collateral
ligament
Plantaris
muscle
(cut)
Tibial
collateral
ligament
Tendon of
semimembranosus
(cut)
(a)
(b)
Femur
Lateral
condyle
Lateral
meniscus
Lateral
condyle
Fibular
collateral
ligament
Fibula
Tibia
Medial
condyle
Anterior
cruciate
ligament
Medial
meniscus
Medial
condyle
Tibial
collateral
ligament
Patellar
ligament
(cut)
Posterior
cruciate
ligament
Tendon of
adductor
magnus (cut)
FIGURE 8.21
Ligaments within the knee joint help to strengthen it. (
a
) Anterior view of right bent knee (patella removed). (
b
) Posterior view of left knee.
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