270
UNIT TWO
muscle, for example, is sometimes described as “fl exes fore-
arm at the elbow.” We have elected to use the more ana-
tomically correct description of the change in geometry at
the joint, “fl exes elbow,” to describe the action of the biceps
brachii muscle.
Table 8.2
lists information on several joints.
PRACTICE
11
Describe how movement occurs at a joint when a muscle contracts.
12
What terms describe movements at synovial joints?
elevation
(el-e-va
¯
shun) Raising a part (shrugging the
shoulders).
depression
(de-presh
un) Lowering a part (drooping
the shoulders).
Description of movements of body parts is complex. At
times, it will sufF
ce to include the descriptive term of the
movement followed by the part that is moving. ±or example,
the deltoid muscle “abducts arm.” Because the action of a
muscle is at the insertion, the action of the biceps brachii
TABLE
8.2
|
Joints of the Body
Joint
Location
Type of Joint
Type of Movement
Skull
Cranial and facial bones
Suture, F
brous
Immovable, synarthrotic
Temporomandibular
Temporal bone, mandible
ModiF
ed hinge, synovial
Elevation, depression, protraction, retraction, diarthrotic
Atlanto-occipital
Atlas, occipital bone
Condylar, synovial
±lexion, extension, diarthrotic
Atlantoaxial
Atlas, axis
Pivot, synovial
Rotation
Intervertebral
Between vertebral bodies
Symphysis, cartilaginous
Slight movement, amphiarthrotic
Intervertebral
Between articular processes
Plane, synovial
±lexion, extension, slight rotation, diarthrotic
Sacroiliac
Sacrum and ilium
Plane, synovial
Sliding movement, diarthrotic
Vertebrocostal
Vertebrae and ribs
Plane, synovial
Sliding movement during breathing, diarthrotic
Sternoclavicular
Sternum and clavicle
Plane, synovial
Sliding movement when shrugging shoulders, diarthrotic
Sternocostal
Sternum and rib 1
Synchondrosis, cartilaginous
Immovable, synarthrotic
Sternocostal
Sternum and ribs 2–7
Plane, synovial
Sliding movement during breathing, diarthrotic
Acromioclavicular
Scapula and clavicle
Plane, synovial
Protraction, retraction, elevation, depression, rotation, diarthrotic
Shoulder
(glenohumeral)
Humerus and scapula
Ball-and-socket, synovial
±lexion, extension, adduction, abduction, rotation, circumduction,
diarthrotic
Elbow
Humerus and ulna
Hinge, synovial
±lexion, extension, diarthrotic
Proximal radioulnar
Radius and ulna
Pivot, synovial
Rotation, diarthrotic
Distal radioulnar
Radius and ulna
Pivot, synovial
Pronation, supination, diarthrotic
Wrist (radiocarpal)
Radius and carpals
Condylar, synovial
±lexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction, diarthrotic
Intercarpal
Adjacent carpals
Plane, synovial
Sliding movement, adduction, abduction, ²
exion, extension,
diarthrotic
Carpometacarpal
Carpal and metacarpal 1
Saddle, synovial
±lexion, extension, adduction, abduction, diarthrotic
Carpometacarpal
Carpals and metacarpals 2–5
Condylar, synovial
±lexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction, diarthrotic
Metacarpophalangeal
Metacarpal and proximal phalanx
Condylar, synovial
±lexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction, diarthrotic
Interphalangeal
Adjacent phalanges
Hinge, synovial
±lexion, extension, diarthrotic
Symphysis pubis
Pubic bones
Symphysis, cartilaginous
Slight movement, amphiarthrotic
Hip
Hip bone and femur
Ball-and-socket, synovial
±lexion, extension, adduction, abduction, rotation, circumduction,
diarthrotic
Knee (tibiofemoral)
±emur and tibia
ModiF
ed hinge, synovial
±lexion, extension, slight rotation when ²
exed, diarthrotic
Knee (femoropatellar)
±emur and patella
Plane, synovial
Sliding movement, diarthrotic
Proximal tibioF
bular
Tibia and F
bula
Plane, synovial
Sliding movement, diarthrotic
Distal tibioF
bular
Tibia and F
bula
Syndesmosis, F
brous
Slight rotation during dorsi²
exion, amphiarthrotic
Ankle (talocrural)
Talus, tibia, and F
bula
Hinge, synovial
Dorsi²
exion, plantar ²
exion, slight circumduction, diarthrotic
Intertarsal
Adjacent tarsals
Plane, synovial
Inversion, eversion, diarthrotic
Tarsometatarsal
Tarsals and metatarsals
Plane, synovial
Sliding movement, diarthrotic
Metatarsophalangeal
Metatarsal and proximal phalanx
Condylar, synovial
±lexion, extension, adduction, abduction, diarthrotic
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