269
CHAPTER EIGHT
Joints of the Skeletal System
surface, whereas lateral (external) rotation is movement
in the opposite direction.
circumduction
(ser
kum-duk
shun) Moving a part so
that its end follows a circular path (moving the F
nger in
a circular motion without moving the hand).
supination
(soo
pı˘-na
shun) Turning the hand so the
palm is upward or facing anteriorly.
pronation
(pro-na
shun) Turning the hand so the palm is
downward or facing posteriorly.
eversion
(e-ver
zhun) Turning the foot so the plantar
surface faces laterally.
inversion
(in-ver
zhun) Turning the foot so the plantar
surface faces medially.
protraction
(pro-trak
shun) Moving a part forward
(thrusting the head forward).
retraction
(re
˘-trak
shun) Moving a part backward
(pulling the head backward).
to describe an abnormal extension beyond the normal
range of motion resulting in injury.
dorsifl
exion
(dor
si-fl ek
shun) Movement at the ankle
that brings the foot closer to the shin (walking on heels).
plantar fl
exion
(plan
tar fl
ek
shun) Movement at the
ankle that brings the foot farther from the shin (walking
or standing on toes).
abduction
(ab-duk
shun) Moving a part away from the
midline (lifting the upper limb horizontally to form a
right angle with the side of the body) or from the axial
line of the limb (spreading the F
ngers or toes).
adduction
(ah-duk
shun) Moving a part toward the
midline (returning the upper limb from the horizontal
position to the side of the body) or toward the axial line
of the limb (closing in the F
ngers or toes).
rotation
(ro-ta
shun) Moving a part around an axis
(twisting the head from side to side). Medial (internal)
rotation is movement toward the midline of the anterior
Inversion
Inversion
Inversion
Eversion
Eversion
Protraction
Protraction
Protraction
Retraction
Retraction
Elevation
Elevation
Elevation
Depression
Depression
FIGURE 8.12
Joint movements illustrating eversion, inversion, retraction, protraction, elevation, and depression.
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