HOLE’S HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY, TWELFTH EDITION
Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the
Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights
Previous editions © 2007, 2004, and 2002. No part of this publication may be reproduced or
distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior
written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or
other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.
Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers out-
side the United States.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 QPD/QPD 0 9
Senior Sponsoring Editor:
James F. Connely
Director of Development:
Lynn M. Breithaupt
Senior Project Manager:
Jayne L. Klein
Lead Production Supervisor:
Lead Media Project Manager:
Stacy A. Patch
(USE) Cover Image: ©
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., Gerald Wofford, photographer (left photo);
Design Pics/PunchStock (middle photo); Scott Halleran/Getty Images (right photo)
Senior Photo Research Coordinator:
John C. Leland
Danny Meldung/Photo Affairs, Inc.
Mary Jane Lampe
ITC Slimbach Std
Quebecor World Dubuque, IA
The credits section for this book begins on page 977 and is considered an extension of the copyright
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Hole’s human anatomy & physiology / David Shier, Jackie Butler, Ricki Lewis.—12th ed.
978–0–07–352570–9 — ISBN
0–07–352570–7 (hard copy : alk. paper)
I. Butler, Jackie. II. Lewis, Ricki. III. Title. IV. Title: Hole’s human anatomy and
physiology. V. Title: Human anatomy & physiology.