260
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
Arthritis has infl
amed
the joints in these
f ngers. Drugs and
replacement joints are
used to treat this painFul
condition.
Joints oF the
Skeletal System
CHAPTER
8
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
8.1 Introduction
1
List the functions of joints. (p. 261)
8.2 Classif
cation oF Joints
2
Explain
how joints can be classiF
ed according to the type of tissue
that binds the bones together. (p. 261)
3
Describe how bones of F
brous joints are held together. (p. 261)
4
Describe how bones of cartilaginous joints are held together. (p. 262)
8.3 General Structure oF a Synovial Joint
5
Describe the general structure of a synovial joint. (p. 263)
8.4 Types oF Synovial Joints
6
Distinguish among the six types of synovial joints and name an ex-
ample of each type. (p. 265)
8.5 Types oF Joint Movements
7
Explain how skeletal muscles produce movements at joints, and iden-
tify several types of joint movements. (p. 267)
8.6 Examples oF Synovial Joints
8
Describe the shoulder joint and explain how its articulating parts are
held together. (p. 271)
9
Describe the elbow, hip, and knee joints and explain how their articu-
lating parts are held together. (p. 272)
8.7 LiFe-Span Changes
10
Describe life-span changes in joints. (p. 278)
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
anul-,
ring:
anul
ar ligament—ring-shaped band of connective
tissue below the elbow joint that encircles the head of the
radius.
arth-,
joint:
arth
rology—study of joints and ligaments.
burs-,
bag, purse: prepatellar
burs
a—±
uid-F
lled sac between the
skin and the patella.
condyl-,
knob: medial
condyl
e—rounded bony process at the
distal end of the femur.
Fov-,
pit:
fov
ea capitis—pit in the head of the femur to which a
ligament is attached.
glen-,
joint socket:
glen
oid cavity—depression in the scapula that
articulates with the head of the humerus.
labr-,
lip: glenoidal
labr
um—rim of F
brocartilage attached to the
margin of the glenoid cavity.
ov-,
egglike: syn
ov
ial ±
uid—thick ±
uid in a joint cavity that
resembles egg white.
sutur-,
sewing:
sutur
e—type of joint in which ±
at bones are
interlocked by a set of tiny bony processes.
syndesm-,
binding together:
syndesm
osis—type of joint in which
the bones are held together by long F
bers of connective
tissue.
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