easier to learn the insertion, origin, action, and nerve supply
of the four muscles making up the
group, because they all have the same insertion, action, and
nerve supply . . . they differ only in their origins.
Another method for remembering information is the
One type of mnemonic device is a list of
words, forming a phrase, in which the first letter of each
word corresponds to the F
rst letter of each word that must be
remembered. ±or example,
ndurance stands for the skull bones
thmoid. Another type of
mnemonic device is a word formed by the F rst letters of the
items to be remembered. ±or example,
stages in the cell cycle:
±orming small study groups helps some students. Together
the students review course material and compare notes.
Working as a team and alternating leaders allows students to
verbalize the information. Individual students can study and
master one part of the assigned material, and then explain
it to the others in the group, which incorporates the infor-
mation into the memory of the speaker. Hearing the mate-
rial spoken aloud also helps the auditory learner. Be sure to
use anatomical and physiological terms, in explanations and
everyday conversation, until they become part of your work-
ing vocabulary, rather than intimidating jargon. Most impor-
tant of all—the group must stay on task, and not become a
vehicle for social interaction. Your instructor may have sug-
gestions or guidelines for setting up study groups.
±lash cards may seem archaic in this computer age, but they
are still a great way to organize and master complex and abun-
dant information. The act of writing or drawing on a note card
helps the tactile learner. Master a few new cards each day,
and review cards from previous days, and use them all again
at the end of the semester to prepare for the comprehensive
F nal exam. They may even come in handy later, such as in
studying for exams for admission to medical school or gradu-
ate school. Divide your deck in half and ﬂ ip half of the cards
so that the answer rather than the question is showing. Mix
them together and shufﬂ e them. Switch them so that you see
the questions rather than the answers from the other half. Get
used to identifying a structure or process from a description
as well as giving a description when provided with a process
or structure. This is more like what will be expected of you in
the real world of the health-care professional.
Manage Your Time
Many of you have important obligations outside of class,
such as jobs and family responsibilities. As important as
these are, you still need to master this material on your path
Organizational tables can help “put it all together,” but are not
a substitute for reading the text or having good lecture notes.
Types of Glandular Secretions
Description of Secretion
uid product released
through the cell membrane
Salivary glands, pancreatic
glands, sweat glands oF
Cellular product and
portions oF the Free ends
oF glandular cells pinch o±
ceruminous glands lining
the external ear canal
lled with secretory
Sebaceous glands oF the
As many resources as your text provides, it is critical
that you attend class regularly, and be on time—even if the
instructor’s notes are posted on the Web. ±or many learn-
ers, hearing and writing new information is a better way to
retain facts than just scanning notes on a computer screen.
Attending lectures and discussion sections also provides
more detailed and applied analysis of the subject matter, as
well as a chance to ask questions.
Be alert and attentive in class. Take notes by adding either
to the outline or notes taken while reading. Auditory learn-
ers beneF t from recording the lectures and listening to them
while driving or doing chores. This is called
doing more than one activity at a time.
Participate in class discussions, asking questions of the
instructor and answering questions he or she poses. All of
the students are in the class to learn, and many will be glad
someone asked a question others would not be comfort-
able asking. Such student response can alert the instructor
to topics that are misunderstood or not understood at all.
However, respect class policy. Due to time constraints and
class size, asking questions may be more appropriate after a
large lecture class or during tutorial (small group) sessions.
In learning complex material, expediency is critical.
Organize, edit, and review notes as soon after class as pos-
eshing out sections where the lecturer got ahead of
the listener. Highlighting or underlining (in color, for visual
learners) the key terms, lists, important points and major
topics make them stand out, which eases both daily reviews
and studying for exams.
Organizing information into lists or categories can minimize
information overload, breaking it into manageable chunks.
±or example, when studying the muscles of the thigh it is