xxvii
CHAPTER PREVIEW
Flow Charts
Flow charts depict sequences of related events, steps of path-
ways, and complex concepts, easing comprehension. Other
± gures may show physiological processes.
If body temperature
continues to drop,
control center signals
muscles to contract
involuntarily.
too high
too low
Normal body
temperature
37
°
C (98.6
°
F)
Control center
Hypothalamus
detects the deviation
from the set point and
signals effector organs.
Control center
Hypothalamus
detects the deviation
from the set point and
signals effector organs.
Stimulus
Body temperature rises
above normal.
Effectors
Dermal blood vessels
dilate and sweat glands
secrete.
Response
Body heat is
lost to surroundings,
temperature drops toward
normal.
Effectors
Dermal blood
vessels constrict
and sweat glands
remain inactive.
Effectors
Muscle
activity
generates
body heat.
Response
Body heat is conserved,
temperature rises toward normal.
Stimulus
Body temperature
drops below normal.
Receptors
Thermoreceptors
send signals to the
control center.
Receptors
Thermoreceptors
send signals to the
control center.
Fetal head
is forced
toward cervix
Fetus is moved
downward
Cervix is
stretched
Reflex is elicited
that causes stronger
uterine contractions
S
tretch receptors
are stimulated
Anatomical Structures
Some figures illustrate the locations of anatomical struc-
tures.
Trapezius
Deltoid
Pectoralis major
Linea alba
(band of connective tissue)
External obli ue
Aponeurosis of external obli ue
S
ternocleidomastoid
Pectoralis minor
Internal intercostal
Serratus anterior
Rectus abdominis
Internal obli ue
Transversus abdominis
External intercostal
Other ± gures illustrate the functional relationships of
anatomical structures.
Pulmonary
valve closed
Tricuspid
and mitral
valves open
(a)
Aortic
valve closed
A
trial systole
LA
LV
RV
RA
Ventricular
d
iastole
(b)
Pulmonary
valve open
Tricuspid
and mitral
valves closed
Aortic
valve open
A
trial d
iastole
Ventricular
systole
previous page 27 David Shier Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology 2010 read online next page 29 David Shier Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology 2010 read online Home Toggle text on/off