a. The tibia is located on the medial side of the leg.
b. It has medial and lateral condyles, tibial tuberosity,
anterior crest, and medial malleolus.
c. It articulates with the talus of the ankle.
a. The ± bula is located on the lateral side of the tibia.
b. It has a head and lateral malleolus that articulates
with the ankle but does not bear body weight.
a. The ankle includes the talus and six other tarsals.
b. The instep has ±
c. The ± ve toes have fourteen phalanges.
LIFE-SPAN CHANGES (PAGE 238)
Aging-associated changes in the skeleton are apparent at
the cellular and whole-body levels.
1. Incremental decrease in height begins at about age
2. Gradually, bone loss exceeds bone replacement.
a. In the ±
rst decade following menopause, bone
loss occurs more rapidly in women than in men or
premenopausal women. By age seventy, both sexes
are losing bone at about the same rate.
b. Aging increases risk of bone fractures.
3. Differences between male and female pelves
a. Differences between male and female pelves reﬂ
the function of the female pelvis as a birth canal.
b. Usually the female pelvis is more ﬂ
ared; pubic arch
is broader; distance between the ischial spines
and the ischial tuberosities is greater; and sacral
curvature is shorter.
LOWER LIMB (PAGE 234)
Bones of the lower limb provide the frameworks of the
thigh, leg, ankle, and foot.
a. The femur extends from the hip to the knee.
b. It has a head, fovea capitis, neck, greater
trochanter, lesser trochanter, linea aspera, lateral
condyle, and medial condyle.
a. The patella is a sesamoid bone in the tendon that
passes anteriorly over the knee.
b. It controls the angle of this tendon and functions in
lever actions associated with lower limb movements.
Active, living tissues found in bone include
_____________________ . (p. 193)
b. nervous tissue
c. dense connective tissue
d. bone tissue
e. all of the above.
7.2 Bone Structure
List four groups of bones based on their shapes, and give
an example from each group. (p. 193)
Sketch a typical long bone, and label its epiphyses,
diaphysis, medullary cavity, periosteum, and articular
cartilages. Designate the locations of compact and
spongy bone. (p. 194)
Discuss the functions of the parts labeled in the sketch
you made for question 3. (p. 194)
Distinguish between the microscopic structure of
compact bone and spongy bone. (p. 195)
Explain how central canals and perforating canals are
related. (p. 195)
7.3 Bone Development and Growth
Explain how the development of intramembranous bone
ers from that of endochondral bone. (p. 197)
___________________ are bone cells in lacunae, whereas
___________________ are bone-forming cells and
___________________ are bone-resorbing cells. (p. 197)
Explain the function of an epiphyseal plate. (p. 198)
Place the zones of cartilage in an epiphyseal plate in order
(1–4), with the ±
rst zone attached to the epiphysis. (p. 198)
zone of hypertrophic cartilage
zone of calci±
zone of resting cartilage
zone of perforating cartilage
Explain how osteoblasts and osteoclasts regulate bone
mass. (p. 200)
Describe the eF
ects of vitamin de±
ciencies on bone
development and growth. (p. 200)
Explain the causes of pituitary dwar±
sm and gigantism.
Describe the eF
ects of thyroid and sex hormones on
bone development and growth. (p. 201)
Physical exercise pulling on muscular attachments to
bone, stimulates _____________________ . (p. 201)
7.4 Bone Function
Provide several examples to illustrate how bones support
and protect body parts. (p. 202)
Describe the functions of red and yellow bone marrow.
Explain the mechanism that regulates the concentration
of blood calcium ions. (p. 204)
List three metallic elements that may be abnormally
stored in bone. (p. 204)
7.5 Skeletal Organization
Bones of the head, neck, and trunk compose the
____________ skeleton; bones of the limbs and their
attachments compose the ___________ skeleton. (p. 206)