muscles. On the lateral surface of the scapula between the
processes is a depression called the
fossa of the scapula). It articulates with the head of the arm
The scapula has three borders. The
the superior edge. The
toward the upper limb. The
closest to the vertebral column, about 5 cm away.
Which bones form the pectoral girdle?
What is the function of the pectoral girdle?
The bones of the upper limb form the framework of the arm,
forearm, and hand. They also provide attachments for mus-
cles and interact with muscles to move limb parts. These
bones include a humerus, a radius, an ulna, carpals, meta-
carpals, and phalanges
is a long bone that extends from the scapula
to the elbow. At its upper end is a smooth, rounded
that F ts into the glenoid cavity of the scapula
(f g. 7.43)
Just below the head are two processes—a
on the lateral side and a
on the anterior side.
These tubercles provide attachments for muscles that move
the upper limb at the shoulder. Between them is a narrow
through which a ten-
don passes from a muscle in the arm (biceps brachii) to the
The narrow depression along the lower margin of the
head that separates it from the tubercles is called the
Just below the head and the tubercles of the
humerus is a tapering region called the
named because fractures commonly occur there. Near
the middle of the bony shaft on the lateral side is a rough
V-shaped area called the
It provides an
attachment for the muscle (deltoid) that raises the upper
limb horizontally to the side.
At the lower end of the humerus are two smooth
u-lum) on the lat-
eral side and a pulley-shaped
le-ah) on the
medial side. The capitulum articulates with the radius at
the elbow, whereas the trochlea joins the ulna.
Above the condyles on either side are
which provide attachments for muscles and ligaments of the
elbow. Between the epicondyles anteriorly is a depression,
that receives a process of the ulna (cor-
onoid process) when the elbow bends. Another depression
on the posterior surface, the
receives an olecranon process when the elbow straightens.
A typical rib. (
) Posterior view. (
) Articulations of a
rib with a thoracic vertebra (superior view).
u-le) are broad, somewhat triangular
bones located on either side of the upper back. They have ﬂ
bodies with concave anterior surfaces
. The poste-
rior surface of each scapula is divided into unequal portions
Above the spine is the
below the spine is the
This spine leads
that forms the tip
of the shoulder. The acromion process articulates with the
clavicle and provides attachments for muscles of the upper
limb and chest. A
riorly and inferiorly to the acromion process. The coracoid
process also provides attachments for upper limb and chest