rated by masses of F brocartilage called
connected to one another by ligaments. The vertebral column
supports the head and the trunk of the body, yet is ﬂ exible
enough to permit movements, such as bending forward, back-
ward, or to the side and turning or rotating on the central axis.
It also protects the spinal cord, which passes through a
formed by openings in the vertebrae.
An infant has thirty-three separate bones in the verte-
bral column. ±ive of these bones eventually fuse to form
the sacrum, and four others join to become the coccyx. As a
result, an adult vertebral column has twenty-six bones.
Normally, the vertebral column has four curvatures,
which give it a degree of resiliency. The names of the curves
Locate and name each of the bones of the cranium.
Locate and name each of the facial bones.
Explain how an adult skull diF
ers from that of an infant.
extends from the skull to the pelvis and
forms the vertical axis of the skeleton
(f g. 7.32)
. It is com-
posed of many bony parts called
) Right lateral view and (
) superior view of the infantile skull.