192
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
Falsely colored scanning
electron micrograph of
an osteoclast (large blue
cell), a type of bone cell
involved in normal bone
remodeling (1,240
×
).
Skeletal System
CHAPTER
7
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to
7.1 Introduction
1
Discuss the living tissues found in bone even though bone appears to
be inert. (p. 193)
7.2 Bone Structure
2
Classify bones according to their shapes, and name an example from
each group. (p. 193)
3
Describe the macroscopic and microscopic structure of a long bone,
and list the functions of these parts. (p. 194)
7.3 Bone Development and Growth
4
Distinguish between intramembranous and endochondral bones,
and explain how such bones develop and grow. (p. 197)
5
Describe the eF
ects of sunlight, nutrition, hormonal secretions, and
exercise on bone development and growth. (p. 200)
7.4 Bone Function
6
Discuss the major functions of bones. (p. 202)
7.5 Skeletal Organization
7
Distinguish between the axial and appendicular skeletons, and name
the major parts of each. (p. 206)
7.6 Skull–7.12
Lower Limb
8
Locate and identify the bones and the major features of the bones
that comprise the skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage, pectoral
girdle, upper limb, pelvic girdle, and lower limb. (p. 206)
9
Describe the diF
erences between male and female skeletons. (p. 234)
7.13 Life-Span Changes
10
Describe life-span changes in the skeletal system. (p. 238)
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
acetabul-,
vinegar cup:
acetabul
um—depression of the hip bone
that articulates with the head of the femur.
ax-,
axis:
ax
ial skeleton—upright portion of the skeleton that
supports the head, neck, and trunk.
-blast,
bud, a growing organism in early stages: osteo
blast
—cell
that will form bone tissue.
canal-,
channel:
canal
iculus—tubular passage.
carp-,
wrist:
carp
als—wrist bones.
-clast,
break: osteo
clast
—cell that breaks down bone tissue.
clav-,
bar:
clav
icle—bone that articulates with the sternum and
scapula.
condyl-,
knob, knuckle:
condyl
e—rounded, bony process.
corac-,
a crow’s beak:
corac
oid process—beaklike process of the
scapula.
cribr-,
sieve:
cribr
iform plate—portion of the ethmoid bone with
many small openings.
crist-,
crest:
crist
a galli—bony ridge that projects upward into the
cranial cavity.
fov-,
pit:
fov
ea capitis—pit in the head of a femur.
glen-,
joint socket:
glen
oid cavity—depression in the scapula that
articulates with the head of a humerus.
inter-,
among, between:
inter
vertebral disc—structure between
vertebrae.
intra-,
inside:
intra
membranous bone—bone that forms within
sheetlike masses of connective tissue.
lamell-,
thin plate:
lamell
a—thin, bony plate.
meat-,
passage: auditory
meat
us—canal of the temporal bone
that leads inward to parts of the ear.
odont-,
tooth:
odont
oid process—toothlike process of the
second cervical vertebra.
poie-,
make, produce: hemato
poie
sis—process that forms blood
cells.
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