190
UNIT TWO
1. A cut in the epidermis is f
lled in by dividing epithelial
cells. Clots close deeper cuts, sometimes leaving a
scar where connective tissue produces collagenous
f
bers, Forming an elevation above the normal
epidermal surFace. Granulations Form as part oF the
healing process in large, open wounds.
2. A superf
cial partial-thickness burn heals quickly
with no scarring. The area is warm and red. A burn
penetrating to the dermis is a deep partial-thickness
burn. It blisters. Deeper skin structures help heal this
more serious type oF burn. A Full-thickness burn is the
most severe and may require a skin graFt.
6.6
LIFE-SPAN CHANGES (PAGE 186)
1. Aging skin aFFects appearance as “age spots” or “liver
spots” appear and grow, along with wrinkling and
sagging.
2. Due to changes in the number oF sweat glands and
shrinking capillary beds in the skin, elderly people are
less able to tolerate the cold and cannot regulate heat.
3. Older skin has a diminished ability to activate vitamin
D necessary For skeletal health.
c. Heat is lost to the outside by radiation, conduction,
convection, and evaporation.
d. Sweat gland activity increases heat loss by
evaporation.
e. When body temperature drops below normal,
dermal blood vessels constrict, causing the skin to
lose color, and sweat glands become inactive.
F. IF body temperature continues to drop, skeletal
muscles involuntarily contract; this increases
cellular respiration and produces additional heat.
2. Problems in temperature regulation
a. Air can hold a limited volume oF water vapor.
b. When the air is saturated with water, sweat may
Fail to evaporate and body temperature may remain
elevated.
c. Hypothermia is lowered body temperature. It
causes shivering, mental conFusion, lethargy, loss
oF refl
exes and consciousness, and eventually
major organ Failure.
6.5
HEALING OF WOUNDS AND BURNS
(PAGE 183)
Skin injuries trigger infl
ammation. The aFFected area
becomes red, warm, swollen, and tender.
6.1 Introduction
1
Two or more tissues grouped together and performing
specialized functions deF
ne a(n) ______________. (p. 171)
±a.± organelle
±b.± cell
±c.± organ
±d.± organ±system
2
The largest organ(s) in the body is (are) the
_____________. (p. 171)
±a.± liver
±b.± intestines
±c.± lungs
±d.± skin
6.2 Skin and Its Tissues
3
²unctions of the skin include ______________. (p. 171)
a. retarding water loss
b. body temperature regulation
±c.± sensory±reception
±d.± excretion
e. All of the above.
4
List the remaining functions of skin not mentioned in
question 3. (p. 171)
5
The epidermis is composed of layers of ______________
tissue. (p. 172)
6
Distinguish between the epidermis and the dermis. (p. 172)
7
Explain the functions of the subcutaneous layer. (p. 172)
8
Explain what happens to epidermal cells as they undergo
keratinization. (p. 173)
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
9
Place the layers of the epidermis in order (1–5) from the
outermost layer to the layer attached to the dermis by the
basement membrane. (p. 173)
________ stratum spinosum
________ stratum corneum
________ stratum basale
________ stratum spinosum
________ stratum granulosum
10
Describe the function of melanocytes. (p. 174)
11
Discuss the function of melanin, other than providing
color to the skin. (p. 174)
12
Explain how environmental factors a³
ect skin color. (p. 176)
13
Describe three physiological factors that a³
ect skin color.
(p. 176)
14
Name the tissue(s) of the dermis. (p. 177)
15
Review the functions of dermal nervous tissue. (p. 177)
6.3 Accessory Structures of the Skin
16
Describe how nails are formed. (p. 177)
17
Distinguish between a hair and a hair follicle. (p. 177)
18
Review how hair color is determined. (p. 178)
19
Explain the function of sebaceous glands. (p. 180)
20
The sweat glands that respond to elevated body
temperature and are commonly found on the forehead,
neck, and back are _____________ glands. (p. 180)
±a.± sebaceous
±b.± holocrine
±c.± eccrine
±d.± apocrine
±e.± ceruminous
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