xix
CONTENTS
INNERCONNECTIONS: REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
868
CHAPTER SUMMARY
869
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
873
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
874
CHAPTER
23
Pregnancy, Growth,
and Development 875
23.1
Introduction 876
23.2
Pregnancy 876
23.3
Prenatal Period
879
23.4
Postnatal Period
904
23.5
Aging 909
CHAPTER SUMMARY
911
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
914
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
915
CHAPTER
24
Genetics and
Genomics 916
24.1
Introduction 917
24.2
Modes of Inheritance
918
24.3
Factors That Affect Expression of Single Genes
924
24.4
Multifactorial Traits
924
24.5
Matters of Sex
927
24.6
Chromosome Disorders
929
24.7
Gene Expression Explains Aspects of Anatomy and
Physiology 933
CHAPTER SUMMARY
935
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
936
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
937
APPENDIX
A
Periodic Table of Elements
939
APPENDIX
B
Laboratory Tests of Clinical
Importance 940
APPENDIX
C
Cellular Respiration
944
APPENDIX
D
A Closer Look at DNA and RNA
Structures 948
Glossary 951
Credits 977
Index 981
CHAPTER
20
Urinary System 774
20.1
Introduction 775
20.2
Kidneys 776
20.3
Urine Formation
785
20.4
Elimination of Urine
798
20.5
Life-Span Changes
803
INNERCONNECTIONS: URINARY SYSTEM
804
CHAPTER SUMMARY
805
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
807
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
808
CHAPTER
21
Water, Electrolyte, and
Acid-Base Balance 810
21.1
Introduction 811
21.2
Distribution of Body Fluids
811
21.3
Water Balance
813
21.4
Electrolyte Balance
815
21.5
Acid-Base Balance
819
21.6
Acid-Base Imbalances
824
CHAPTER SUMMARY
826
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
828
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
829
THE HUMAN LIFE CYCLE
830
UNIT
VI
CHAPTER
22
Reproductive
Systems 830
22.1
Introduction 831
22.2
Organs of the Male
Reproductive System
833
22.3
Hormonal Control of Male Reproductive
Functions 845
22.4
Organs of the Female Reproductive System
846
22.5
Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive
Functions 857
22.6
Mammary Glands
861
22.7
Birth Control
862
22.8
Sexually Transmitted Infections
867
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