xviii
CONTENTS
17.3
Mouth 656
17.4
Salivary Glands
660
17.5
Pharynx and Esophagus
661
17.6
Stomach 665
17.7
Pancreas 671
17.8
Liver 673
17.9
Small Intestine
678
17.10
Large Intestine
686
17.11
Life-Span Changes
690
INNERCONNECTIONS: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
692
CHAPTER SUMMARY
693
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
696
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
697
CHAPTER
18
Nutrition and
Metabolism 698
18.1
Introduction 699
18.2
Carbohydrates 700
18.3
Lipids 702
18.4
Proteins 704
18.5
Energy Expenditures
706
18.6
Vitamins 709
18.7
Minerals 717
18.8
Healthy Eating
722
18.9
Life-Span Changes
728
CHAPTER SUMMARY
729
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
732
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
733
CHAPTER
19
Respiratory System 735
19.1
Introduction 736
19.2
Why We Breathe
736
19.3
Organs of the Respiratory
System 737
19.4
Breathing Mechanism
747
19.5
Control of Breathing
755
19.6
Alveolar Gas Exchanges
759
19.7
Gas Transport
762
19.8
Life-Span Changes
767
INNERCONNECTIONS: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
768
CHAPTER SUMMARY
769
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
771
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
773
CHAPTER
15
Cardiovascular
System 552
15.1
Introduction 553
15.2
Structure of the Heart
553
15.3
Heart Actions
564
15.4
Blood Vessels
573
15.5
Blood Pressure
580
15.6
Paths of Circulation
590
15.7
Arterial System
592
15.8
Venous System
600
15.9
Life-Span Changes
606
INNERCONNECTIONS: CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
610
CHAPTER SUMMARY
611
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
614
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
615
CHAPTER
16
Lymphatic System and
Immunity 616
16.1
Introduction 617
16.2
Lymphatic Pathways
617
16.3
Tissue Fluid and Lymph
619
16.4
Lymph Movement
621
16.5
Lymph Nodes
621
16.6
Thymus and Spleen
623
16.7
Body Defenses Against Infection
625
16.8
Innate (NonspeciĀ±
c) Defenses
626
16.9
Adaptive (SpeciĀ±
c) Defenses or Immunity
628
16.10
Life-Span Changes
644
CHAPTER SUMMARY
644
INNERCONNECTIONS: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
645
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
648
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
649
ABSORPTION AND
EXCRETION 651
UNIT
V
CHAPTER
17
Digestive System 651
17.1
Introduction 652
17.2
General Characteristics of the
Alimentary Canal
652
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