xvii
CONTENTS
12.3
General Senses
440
12.4
Special Senses
446
12.5
Life-Span Changes
476
CHAPTER SUMMARY
477
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
480
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
481
CHAPTER
13
Endocrine System 482
13.1
Introduction 483
13.2
General Characteristics of the
Endocrine System
483
13.3
Hormone Action
484
13.4
Control of Hormonal Secretions
491
13.5
Pituitary Gland
492
13.6
Thyroid Gland
499
13.7
Parathyroid Glands
502
13.8
Adrenal Glands
504
13.9
Pancreas 509
13.10
Other Endocrine Glands
511
13.11
Stress and Its Effects
513
13.12
Life-Span Changes
515
INNERCONNECTIONS: ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
516
CHAPTER SUMMARY
517
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
519
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
520
TRANSPORT 522
UNIT
IV
CHAPTER
14
Blood 522
14.1
Introduction 523
14.2
Blood Cells
524
14.3
Blood Plasma
535
14.4
Hemostasis 538
14.5
Blood Groups and Transfusions
544
CHAPTER SUMMARY
548
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
550
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
551
INTEGRATION AND
COORDINATION 353
UNIT
III
CHAPTER
10
Nervous System I:
Basic Structure and
Function 353
10.1
Introduction 354
10.2
General Functions of the Nervous System
355
10.3
Description of Cells of the Nervous System
356
10.4
Classi┬▒ cation of Cells of the Nervous System
359
10.5
The Synapse
365
10.6
Cell Membrane Potential
365
10.7
Synaptic Transmission
371
10.8
Impulse Processing
374
CHAPTER SUMMARY
376
INNERCONNECTIONS: NERVOUS SYSTEM
378
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
380
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
381
CHAPTER
11
Nervous System II:
Divisions of the Nervous
System 382
11.1
Introduction 384
11.2
Meninges 384
11.3
Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid
385
11.4
Spinal Cord
387
11.5
Brain 397
11.6
Peripheral Nervous System
411
11.7
Autonomic Nervous System
424
11.8
Life-Span Changes
431
CHAPTER SUMMARY
432
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
434
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
436
CHAPTER
12
Nervous System III:
Senses 437
12.1
Introduction 438
12.2
Receptors, Sensation, and
Perception 438
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