OUTCOMES 2.2, 4.2
1. How can the same molecule be both a reactant (starting
material) and a product of a biochemical pathway?
OUTCOMES 2.3, 3.2, 4.3
2. What effect might changes in the pH of body fl
uids or body
temperature that accompany illness have on cells?
OUTCOMES 2.3, 4.2, 4.5
3. Michael P. was very weak from birth, with poor muscle tone,
culty breathing, and great fatigue. By his third month, he
began having seizures. Michael’s medical tests were normal
except for one: his cerebrospinal fl
uid (the fl
uid that bathes
the brain and spinal cord) was unusually high in glucose.
Hypothesizing that the boy could not produce enough ATP,
doctors tried an experimental treatment: they gave him a diet
rich in certain fatty acids that caused the cellular respiration
pathway to resume at the point of acetyl CoA formation.
Michael rapidly improved. Explain what caused his symptoms.
OUTCOMES 4.4, 4.5
4. In cyanide poisoning, levels of ATP in the brain plummet,
but levels of lactic acid increase markedly. Explain how both
effects occur.
OUTCOMES 4.4, 4.5
5. A student is used to running 3 miles at a leisurely jogging
pace. In a F
tness class, she has to run a mile as fast as she can.
Afterwards, she is winded and has sharp pains in her chest
and leg muscles. What has she experienced, in terms of energy
6. Consider the following DNA sequence:
a. Write the sequence of the DNA strand that would be
replicated from this one.
b. Write the sequence of the RNA molecule that would be
transcribed from the DNA strand.
c. State how many codons the sequence speciF
d. State how many amino acids the sequence speciF
7. Some antibiotic drugs F
ght infection by interfering with DNA
replication, transcription, or translation in bacteria. These
processes are different enough in bacteria that the drugs do not
harm us. Indicate whether each of the following effects is on
replication, transcription, or translation.
a. Rifampin binds to bacterial RNA polymerase.
b. Streptomycin binds bacterial ribosomes, disabling them.
c. Quinolone blocks an enzyme that prevents bacterial DNA
from unwinding.
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