141
CHAPTER FOUR
Cellular Metabolism
4.1 Introduction
1
Def
ne
metabolism
. (p. 115)
2
Explain how metabolic pathways are linked and intersect.
(p. 115)
4.2 Metabolic Processes
3
Distinguish between catabolism and anabolism. (p. 115)
4
Distinguish between dehydration synthesis and
hydrolysis. (p. 115)
5
Give examples oF a dehydration synthesis reaction and a
hydrolysis reaction. (p. 115)
4.3 Control of Metabolic Reactions
6
Describe how an enzyme interacts with its substrate.
(p. 117)
7
Def
ne
active site
. (p. 117)
8
State two Factors that control the rate oF an enzyme-
catalyzed reaction. (p. 117)
9
A cell has _________ types oF enzymes and metabolic
reactions. (p. 117)
a. 3
d. millions oF
b. hundreds oF
e. 3 billion
c. thousands oF
10
Explain the importance oF a rate-limiting enzyme. (p. 118)
11
Describe how negative Feedback involving a rate-limiting
enzyme controls a metabolic pathway. (p. 118)
12
Def
ne
cofactor
. (p. 119)
13
Discuss the relationship between a coenzyme and a
vitamin. (p. 119)
4.4 Energy for Metabolic Reactions
14
Def
ne
energy
. (p. 119)
15
Explain the importance oF ATP and its relationship to
ADP. (p. 119)
16
Explain how the oxidation oF molecules inside cells di±
ers
From the burning oF substances outside cells. (p. 120)
4.5 Cellular Respiration
17
Def
ne
cellular respiration
. (p. 120)
18
Distinguish between anaerobic and aerobic phases oF
cellular respiration. (p. 120)
19
Match the part oF cellular respiration to the associated
activities. (p. 120)
(1) electron trans-
port chain
(2) glycolysis
(3) citric acid cycle
A. glucose molecules are broken
down into pyruvic acid
B. carrier molecules and enzymes
extract energy and store it as
ATP, releasing water and heat
C. pyruvic acid molecules enter mi-
tochondria, where CO
2
and high-
energy electrons are released
20
IdentiFy the f
nal acceptor oF the electrons released in the
reactions oF cellular respiration. (p. 123)
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
21
Excess glucose in cells may link and be stored as
____________. (p. 124)
4.6 Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis
22
The genetic code is ___________. (p. 124)
a. the bonding oF purine to pyrimidine
b. the correspondence between DNA triplet and amino
acid
c. the correspondence between DNA triplet and RNA triplet
d. the controls that determine where the instructions For
a protein start and stop
e. unique in each individual
23
DNA inFormation provides instructions For the cell to
__________. (p. 125)
a. manuFacture carbohydrate molecules
b. extract energy
c. manuFacture RNA From amino acids
d. synthesize protein molecules
24
Distinguish between a gene and a genome. (p. 125)
25
Def
ne
gene expression
. (p. 125)
26
IF a DNA strand has the sequence ATGCGATCCGC then
the sequence on the complementary DNA strand is
___________. (p. 127)
27
Explain why DNA replication is essential. (p. 127)
28
Describe the events oF DNA replication. (p. 127)
29
IdentiFy the part oF a DNA molecule that encodes
inFormation. (p. 130)
30
List three ways that RNA di±
ers From DNA. (p. 130)
31
IF one strand oF a DNA molecule has the sequence oF
ATTCTCGACTAT, the complementary mRNA has the
sequence ___________. (p. 131)
a. ATTCTCGACTAT
b. AUUCUCGACUAU
c. TAAGAGCTGATA
d. UAAGAGCUGATA
e.
Can’t tell From given
inFormation.
32
Distinguish between transcription and translation. (p. 131)
33
Distinguish the Functions oF mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA.
(p. 132)
34
List the steps oF protein synthesis. (p. 132)
35
Describe the Function oF a ribosome in protein synthesis.
(p. 132)
36
Calculate the number oF amino acids that a DNA
sequence oF twenty-seven nucleotides encodes. (p. 132)
4.7 Changes in Genetic Information
37
Distinguish among mutations, SNPs, and copy number
variants. (p. 135)
38
Discuss two major ways that mutation occurs. (p. 136)
39
Def
ne
DNA damage response.
(p. 137)
40
Discuss three ways that the genetic code protects against
the persistence oF a mutation. (p. 137)
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