xvi
CONTENTS
7.10
Upper Limb
226
7.11
Pelvic Girdle
231
7.12
Lower Limb
234
7.13
Life-Span Changes
238
INNERCONNECTIONS: SKELETAL SYSTEM
239
CHAPTER SUMMARY
240
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
243
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
244
REFERENCE PLATES 26–54
Human Skull
245
CHAPTER
8
Joints of the Skeletal
System 260
8.1
Introduction 261
8.2
ClassiF
cation of Joints
261
8.3
General Structure of a Synovial Joint
263
8.4
Types of Synovial Joints
265
8.5
Types of Joint Movements
267
8.6
Examples of Synovial Joints
271
8.7
Life-Span Changes
278
CHAPTER SUMMARY
281
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
282
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
283
CHAPTER
9
Muscular System 284
9.1
Introduction 285
9.2
Structure of a Skeletal
Muscle 285
9.3
Skeletal Muscle Contraction
289
9.4
Muscular Responses
296
9.5
Smooth Muscles
300
9.6
Cardiac Muscle
301
9.7
Skeletal Muscle Actions
301
9.8
Major Skeletal Muscles
305
9.9
Life-Span Changes
334
INNERCONNECTIONS: MUSCULAR SYSTEM
333
CHAPTER SUMMARY
334
CHAPTER ASSESSEMENTS
337
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
339
REFERENCE PLATES 55–75
Surface Anatomy and Cadaver Dissection
341
CHAPTER
5
Tissues 143
5.1
Introduction 144
5.2
Epithelial Tissues
144
5.3
Connective Tissues
152
5.4
Types of Membranes
163
5.5
Muscle Tissues
163
5.6
Nervous Tissues
164
CHAPTER SUMMARY
165
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
168
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
169
SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT
170
UNIT
II
CHAPTER
6
Integumentary
System 170
6.1
Introduction 171
6.2
Skin and Its Tissues
171
6.3
Accessory Structures of the Skin
177
6.4
Regulation of Body Temperature
181
6.5
Healing of Wounds and Burns
183
6.6
Life-Span Changes
186
INNERCONNECTIONS: INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
188
CHAPTER SUMMARY
189
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
190
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
191
CHAPTER
7
Skeletal System 192
7.1
Introduction 193
7.2
Bone Structure
193
7.3
Bone Development
and Growth
197
7.4
Bone ±unction
202
7.5
Skeletal Organization
205
7.6
Skull 206
7.7
Vertebral Column
218
7.8
Thoracic Cage
222
7.9
Pectoral Girdle
225
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