xv
CONTENTS
FOUNDATIONS FOR SUCCESS
XXIII
LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
1
UNIT
I
CHAPTER
1
Introduction to
Human Anatomy
and Physiology 1
1.1
Introduction 3
1.2
Anatomy and Physiology
4
1.3
Levels of Organization
4
1.4
Characteristics of Life
6
1.5
Maintenance of Life
7
1.6
Organization of the Human Body
12
1.7
Life-Span Changes
20
1.8
Anatomical Terminology
20
Some Medical and Applied Sciences
24
CHAPTER SUMMARY
26
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
28
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
29
REFERENCE PLATES 1–25
The Human Organism
30
CHAPTER
2
Chemical Basis of
Life 50
2.1
Introduction 51
2.2
Structure of Matter
51
2.3
Chemical Constituents of Cells
60
CONTENTS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
72
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
73
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
74
CHAPTER
3
Cells 75
3.1
Introduction 76
3.2
A Composite Cell
76
3.3
Movements Into and Out
of the Cell
90
3.4
The Cell Cycle
100
3.5
Control of Cell Division
103
3.6
Stem and Progenitor Cells
105
3.7
Cell Death
106
CHAPTER SUMMARY
109
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
111
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
113
CHAPTER
4
Cellular
Metabolism 114
4.1
Introduction 115
4.2
Metabolic Processes
115
4.3
Control of Metabolic Reactions
117
4.4
Energy for Metabolic Reactions
119
4.5
Cellular Respiration
120
4.6
Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis
124
4.7
Changes in Genetic Information
135
CHAPTER SUMMARY
138
CHAPTER ASSESSMENTS
141
INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENTS/CRITICAL THINKING
142
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