114
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
Chromosomes are mostly
DNA, whose sequencees
instruct cells to build
specif c proteins—
including enzymes
essential to metabolism
(36,000
×
).
Cellular
Metabolism
CHAPTER
4
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
4.1 Introduction
1
Describe the linked pathways of metabolism. (p.115)
4.2 Metabolic Processes
2
Compare and contrast anabolism and catabolism. (p. 115)
4.3 Control of Metabolic Reactions
3
Describe how enzymes control metabolic reactions. (p.117)
4
Explain how metabolic pathways are regulated. (p.118)
4.4 Energy for Metabolic Reactions
5
Explain how ATP stores chemical energy and makes it available to a
cell. (p. 119)
4.5 Cellular Respiration
6
Explain how the reactions of cellular respiration release chemical
energy. (p.120)
7
Describe the general metabolic pathways of carbohydrate metabo-
lism. (p.120)
4.6 Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis
8
Describe how DNA molecules store genetic information. (p. 124)
9
Describe how DNA molecules are replicated. (p. 127)
10
Explain how protein synthesis relies on genetic information. (p. 130)
11
Compare and contrast DNA and RNA. (p. 130)
12
Describe the steps of protein synthesis. (p. 131)
4.7 Changes in Genetic Information
13
Describe how genetic information can be altered. (p. 135)
14
Explain how a mutation may or may not aF
ect an organism. (p. 136)
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
aer-,
air:
aer
obic respiration—respiratory process that requires
oxygen.
an-,
without:
an
aerobic respiration—respiratory process that
does not require oxygen.
ana-,
up:
ana
bolism—cellular processes in which smaller
molecules are used to build up larger ones.
cata-,
down:
cata
bolism—cellular processes in which larger
molecules are broken down into smaller ones.
co-,
with:
co
enzyme—substance that unites with a protein to
complete the structure of an active enzyme molecule.
de-,
undoing:
de
amination—process that removes nitrogen-
containing portions of amino acid molecules.
mut-,
change:
mut
ation—change in genetic
information.
-strat,
spread out: sub
strat
e—substance upon which an enzyme
acts.
sub-,
under:
sub
strate—substance upon which an enzyme acts.
-zym,
causing to ferment: en
zym
e—protein that speeds up a
chemical reaction without itself being consumed.
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