75
LEARN
PRACTICE
ASSESS
This falsely colored
scanning electron
micrograph depicts two
cells emerging from
one after cell division
(5,100
×
).
Cells
CHAPTER
3
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:
3.1 Introduction
1
Explain how cells dif
er From one another. (p. 76)
3.2 A Composite Cell
2
Describe the general characteristics oF a composite cell. (p. 76)
3
Explain how the components oF a cell's membrane provide its Func-
tions. (p. 79)
4
Describe each kind oF cytoplasmic organelle and explain its Function.
(p. 82)
5
Describe the cell nucleus and its parts. (p. 89)
3.3 Movements Into and Out of the Cell
6
Explain how substances move into and out oF cells. (p. 90)
3.4 The Cell Cycle
7
Describe the cell cycle. (p. 100)
8
Explain how a cell divides. (p. 100)
3.5 Control of Cell Division
9
Describe several controls oF cell division. (p. 103)
3.6 Stem and Progenitor Cells
10
Explain how stem cells and progenitor cells make possible growth
and repair oF tissues. (p. 105)
11
Explain how two dif
erentiated cell types can have the same genetic
inFormation, but dif
erent appearances and Functions. (p. 106)
3.7 Cell Death
12
Discuss apoptosis
.
(p. 106)
13
Describe the relationship between apoptosis and mitosis. (p. 106)
UNDERSTANDING WORDS
apo-,
away, of
, apart:
apo
ptosis—a Form oF cell death in which
cells are shed From a developing structure.
cyt-,
cell:
cyt
oplasm—±
uid (cytosol) and organelles between the
cell membrane and nuclear envelope.
endo-,
within:
endo
plasmic reticulum—membranous complex in
the cytoplasm.
hyper-,
above:
hyper
tonic—solution that has a greater osmotic
pressure than the cytosol.
hypo-,
below:
hypo
tonic—solution that has a lesser osmotic
pressure than the cytosol.
inter-,
between:
inter
phase—stage between mitotic divisions oF
a cell.
iso-,
equal:
iso
tonic—solution that has an osmotic pressure equal
to that oF the cytosol.
lys-,
to break up:
lys
osome—organelle containing enzymes that
break down proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.
mit-,
thread:
mit
osis—stage oF cell division when chromosomes
condense.
phag-,
to eat:
phag
ocytosis—process by which a cell takes in
solid particles.
pino-,
to drink:
pino
cytosis—process by which a cell takes in tiny
droplets oF liquid.
pro-,
beFore:
pro
phase—²
rst stage oF mitosis.
-som,
body: ribo
som
e—tiny, spherical organelle composed oF
protein and RNA that supports protein synthesis.
vesic-,
bladder:
vesic
le—small, saclike organelle that contains
substances to be transported within the cell or secreted.
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