1009
INDEX
Viruses, 76, 360, 638.
See also
Human
immunodef
ciency virus (HIV);
Human papilloma virus; Infl
uenza;
Marburg virus
Viscera, 12
Visceral aFFerent f
bers, 412, 414
Visceral branch, 420
Visceral eFFerent f
bers, 412
Visceral pain, 441–42
Visceral pericardium, 12, 554
Visceral peritoneum, 14, 654
Visceral pleura, 12, 747
Visceral senses, 446
Visceral smooth muscle, 300
Visceroreceptive senses, 440
Viscosity, and blood pressure, 584–85
Visible Human Project, 3
Vision.
See
Eye; Sight
Visual accessory organs, 462–65
Visual nerve pathways, 475–76
Visual pigments, 473–75
Visual receptors, 473
Vital capacity (VC), 753, 754t
Vital signs, 2
Vitamin(s)
def
nition, 119
nutrition, 709–16, 726
supplements, 717
Vitamin A, 200, 475, 709–11, 713t
Vitamin B, 529, 713–16, 717t
Vitamin C, 200, 529, 716, 717F, 719t
Vitamin D, 172, 186–87, 200, 204, 240,
502–503, 711–12, 713t, 777
Vitamin E, 712, 713t
Vitamin K, 539, 712, 713t
Vitreous body, 469
Vitreous humor, 437, 469
Vocal cords, 741, 742F
Volar arch arteries, 597
Volatile acid, 822
Voltage-gated sodium channels, 369
Voluntary muscle, 163, 284
Vomer bone, 209F, 211F, 214, 215F, 216t,
245,
247, 249–51
Vomiting and vomiting center, 670–71, 825
Von Willebrand disease, 548t
W
Wall.
See also
Abdominal wall; Alveolar
wall; Thoracic wall
oF alimentary canal, 652–54, 655t
oF heart, 555, 557t
oF large intestine, 688
oF small intestine, 681–82
Wandering cells, 153
WarFarin, 542
Warm receptors, 440
Warning signs, oF breast cancer, 864
Warren, J. Robin, 668
Washington, George, 742
Water
balance, 811, 813–15, 816–17
chemical constituents oF cells, 61, 62t
metabolism, 813
molecular structure, 69F
osmosis, 93–94
Vegetarian diets, 699t
Veins, 579–80.
See also
Cardiovascular
system;
specif
c vein
Vena cava, 608F
inFerior,
37,
44
45,
47,
557, 558F, 560F,
562F, 602, 604, 605, 606F, 607F,
777F, 778F, 898F
interior,
36
superior,
35
36,
46,
557, 558F, 560F,
562F, 593F, 602, 603F, 607F, 898F
Venipuncture, 603
Venoconstriction, 589
Venous blood fl
ow, 587, 589
Venous pathways, 600, 602
Venous return, 585
Venous sinus, 602F
Ventilation, 736, 756
Ventral branch, 420
Ventral respiratory group, 757
Ventral root, 420
Ventricles.
See also
±ourth ventricle;
Lateral ventricle; LeFt ventricle; Right
ventricle; Third ventricle
heart, 555, 608F
nervous system,
40,
363, 385–86, 387F,
388F, 398
Ventricular f
brillation, 572
Ventricular syncytium, 565
Venules, 579–80
Vermis, 410
VernoFF, Bruce and Gaby, 876
Vertebrae, 218, 219–21.
See also
Cervical
vertebrae; Lumbar vertebrae;
Thoracic vertebrae; Vertebral
column
Vertebral arteries,
43,
593, 595F, 596F, 601F
Vertebral body,
44
45,
598F
Vertebral border, 226
Vertebral canal, 12
Vertebral column,
38,
205t, 206, 218–22,
225, 308, 310.
See also
Spinal cord;
Vertebrae
Vertebral compression, 240
Vertebral Foramen, 220.
See also
Intervertebral Foramen
Vertebral region, 24, 25F
Vertebral spine,
342
Vertebral vein, 602
Vertebra prominens, 219F, 220
Vertebrocostal joint, 270t
Vertex position, 894
Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL),
684, 703
Vesical arteries, 598, 599F
superior, 905
Vesical veins, 605
Vesicles, 75, 83, 91t
Vesicoureteral refl
ux, 802t
Vestibular branch f
bers, 416
Vestibular bulbs, 856
Vestibular glands, 856, 857t
Vestibular membrane, 453
Vestibule, 453, 656, 856, 857t
Vestibulocochlear nerves, 416, 417t
Veterans Administration, 261
Viagra (sildenaf
l), 844
Villi, 651.
See also
Microvilli
endocrine system, 516, 804
integumentary system, 188, 804
kidneys, 776–85
liFe-span changes, 803, 805, 908t
lymphatic system, 645, 804
major Functions oF, 8t, 17–18
muscular system, 333, 804
nervous system, 378, 804
reproductive system, 804, 868
respiratory system, 768, 804
skeletal system, 239, 804
urine Formation, 785–98
Urinary tract inFection (UTI), 800
Urine.
See also
Urinary bladder; Urinary
system
composition oF, 798
elimination oF, 798–903
Formation oF, 785–98
laboratory tests, 943
regulation oF water output, 814, 815
relative concentrations oF
components, 788t
Urogenital diaphragm, 320, 322, 834F
Urology, 25
USA Track and ±ield, 816
Uterine artery, 598
Uterine tube,
35,
848F, 849F, 852, 853F, 854,
857t
Uterine veins, 605
Uterus,
35
36,
848F, 849F, 854, 857t, 877F,
884
Utricle, 459, 461F
Uvula, 657, 738F
V
Vaccines, 290, 638, 644
Vagina,
37,
853F, 854–55, 857t, 877F
Vaginal orif ce, 848F, 854
Vaginal process, 835
Vaginal veins, 605
Vagus nerve,
47,
416, 417t, 568
Valine, 135t, 705t
Valium, 374t, 377
Valves
oF heart, 555–57, 558F, 559F, 560t
oF veins, 579
Variably expressive phenotype, 924
Varicose veins, 581
Vasa recta, 785, 786F, 795, 797
Vascular endothelial growth Factor (VEG±),
104, 574, 781
Vascular tunic, 465
Vasectomy, 866, 867F
Vasoconstriction, 576, 584F
Vasodilation, 576, 584F
Vasomotor center, oF medulla oblongata,
409, 587
Vasomotor f bers, 576
Vasopressin, 482, 498
Vasospasm, 538
Vastus intermedius,
36,
324F, 328
Vastus lateralis muscle,
34–36,
45,
305F,
306F, 324F, 325F, 326F, 328, 330F,
344,
350
Vastus medialis muscle,
34
35,
305F, 324F,
327F, 328,
344,
350
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