1005
INDEX
Skin glands, 179–81, 182t
Skin substitutes, 186
Skull,
42,
245–59
bones of, 205t
divisions of skeleton, 206
fossilized and human evolution, 193
joints, 270t
male versus female, 234t
skeletal system, 206, 208–17, 218f
Sleep apnea, 757
Sleep paralysis, 409t
Sleep and sleep disorders, 373t, 409, 757
Sliding F
lament model, 291, 292
Slow-twitch muscle F
bers, 299
Slow-wave sleep, 409
Small intestine,
33
34,
38,
40
41,
44,
48
49,
653f, 655f, 678–86
Small saphenous vein, 605, 607f
Smell, sense of, 446–48, 451
Smoking.
See
Cigarette smoke and smoking;
Nicotine
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, 83, 84f
Smooth muscle(s), 300–301, 302t
Smooth muscle F bers, 300
Smooth muscle tissue, 163, 164f, 165t
Sneezing, 754, 755t
Social Security Administration, 876
Sodium.
See also
Salt(s); Sodium chloride;
Sodium/potassium pump
atomic structure, 53t
blood tests, 942
chemical constituents of cells, 62t
diffusion and active transport, 95
electrolyte balance, 818, 820
elemental composition of human
body, 52t
hypertension, 588
ion channels, 82, 365, 366, 367f, 369,
370t, 372
nutrition, 719, 721t
urine, 788t, 792, 794t
Sodium chloride, 795, 797f, 813
Sodium hydroxide, 59
Sodium/potassium pump, 96, 365, 366,
367f, 812–13
Soft palate, 657, 664
Soleus muscle, 305f, 306f, 329f, 330f, 331f,
332,
345,
351–52
Somatic afferent F
bers, 412, 414
Somatic efferent F bers, 412, 414
Somatic nervous system, 356, 411
Somatostatin, 487t, 494, 511, 668, 678t
Somatotropes, 494
Somatotropin (STH), 494
Sounds, of heart, 564–65
Sour receptors, 449–50
Space medicine, 201, 585
Spastic paralysis, 397
Specialized cells, 78f
Specialized connective tissues, 156
Special senses, 438, 446–76
Species resistance, 626, 628t
Speech, 755t.
See also
Motor speech area
Sperm, 831, 877.
See also
Spermatogenesis;
Sperm cells
Spermatic arteries, 593
Spermatic cord,
33,
41,
835
Sex-infl
uenced inheritance, 928
Sex-limited trait, 928
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs),
867, 869
Shark cartilage, 725
Shigatoxin, 790
Shock, and blood pressure, 789
Short bones, 193, 194f
Short head biceps brachii muscle,
32
Shoulder, 270t, 271–72, 313f, 597, 602–603
“Siamese twins,” 900
Sickle cell disease, 195, 527, 529t, 548t, 922
Side chain, 65
Sight, sense of, 462–76.
See also
Eye
Sigmoid colon,
35
36,
41,
49,
687
Simethicone, 670
Simple columnar epithelium, 146, 148f, 153f
Simple cuboidal epithelium, 147f, 153f
Simple diffusion, 100t
Simple glands, 150, 152t
Simple squamous epithelium, 145, 146,
147f, 153t
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs),
135–36
Sinoatrial (SA) node, 565–66, 571f, 573
Sinuses, 208t, 738, 740f, 747t
Skeletal muscle.
See also
Muscular system
actions, 301–305
contraction, 289–96
F
bers, 287–88
lymph fl
ow, 621
major muscles, 305–34
structure, 285–89
tissue, 163, 165t, 302t
use and disuse of, 300
Skeletal system.
See also
Bone; Joints
cardiovascular system, 239, 610
deF
nition, 193
digestive system, 239, 692
endocrine system, 239, 516
integumentary system, 188, 239
life-span changes, 238, 240, 908t
lower limbs, 234–38
lymphatic system, 239, 645
major functions of, 8t, 14, 16f
muscular system, 239, 333
nervous system, 239, 378
pectoral girdle, 225–26
pelvic girdle, 231–34
reproductive system, 239, 868
respiratory system, 239, 768
skull, 206, 208–17, 218f
upper limb, 226–31
urinary system, 239, 804
veretebral column, 218–22
Skin.
See also
Integumentary system
accessory structures, 177–81
body temperature regulation,
181–82, 183f
color, 174, 176, 179, 925f, 926
healing of wounds and burns,
183–86, 187f
lymphatic vessels, 619
organization, 205–206
tissues, 171–77
Skin cancer, 175, 712
Skin cells, 171
small intestine, 683
tubular, 786, 793–94
Sedimentation rate, erythrocyte, 942
Segmentation, of alimentary canal, 654, 656f
Selectin, 81
Selective estrogen receptor modulators
(SERMs), 489t, 865
Selectively permeable cells, 79
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
(SSRIs), 374t, 859
Selenium, 722, 723t
Sellar joint, 267
Sella turcica, 211f, 212, 213f, 215f,
254–57,
493f
Semen, 841
Semicircular canals, 453
Semilunar valve, 552
Semimembranosus muscle, 306f, 326, 327f,
328t, 331f,
351
Seminal vesicle, 834f, 840, 845t
Seminiferous tubules, 835, 836f, 845t
Semispinalis capitis muscle, 308, 309f, 310
Semitendinosus muscle, 306f, 326, 327f,
328t, 331f,
343,
351
Senescence, and development, 875,
907, 908t
Sensation, 438–40
Senses
equilibrium, 459–61
hearing, 450–58
life-span changes, 476–77
sight, 462–76
smell, 446–68
taste, 448–50
Sensoneural deafness, 459
Sensory adaptation, 440
Sensory area, of cerebrum, 401
Sensory impulses, from ear, 458t
Sensory nerves, 412
Sensory neurons, 353, 360–61, 362t, 393t
Sensory receptors, 177, 355, 389, 439,
446–47
Sensory speech area, 401
Septa, 835
9/11-associated air pollution, 749
Septicemia, 911t
Serine, 135t, 705t
Serology, 546
Serosa, 654, 655t
Serotonin, 373t, 443, 534
Serous cells, 660
Serous coat, 800
Serous fl
uid, 152
Serous layer, 654
Serous membranes, 15f, 163
Serratus anterior muscle,
31
32,
305f, 312,
313t, 314f,
343,
347
Serum, 541
Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, 941
Serum protrombin conversion
accelerator, 541t
Sesamoid bones, 193, 194f, 230f, 237f
Set point, 9
Sex cells, transport of, 876–77
Sex chromosomes, 919, 927–28
Sex determination, 927
Sex hormones, 508
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