1003
INDEX
Renal corpuscle, 778f, 779, 783f, 797t
Renal cortex, 774, 776, 778f, 783f, 785f
Renal dysplasia, 802t
Renal excretion, of hydrogen ions, 823
Renal fascia, 777f
Renal hypoplasia, 802t
Renal medulla, 776, 778f, 783f, 785f
Renal papillae, 774, 776, 778f
Renal pelvis, 776, 776f, 780f
Renal plasma threshold, 792
Renal pyramids, 776, 778f
Renal sinus, 776, 778f
Renal tubules, 778f, 779, 797t, 803
Renal veins, 604, 607f, 778f, 779, 780f
Renin, 506, 588, 777, 790
Renin-angiotensin system, 506, 790
Repair enzymes, 137
Replication, of DNA, 127, 129f
Reproduction.
See also
Reproductive system
characteristics of life, 8t
organ systems, 18
Reproductive cycle, 857–59
Reproductive system
autonomic stimulation, 430t
cardiovascular system, 610, 868
digestive system, 692, 868
endocrine system, 516, 868
hormonal control of female, 857–61
hormonal control of male, 845–46
integumentary system, 188, 868
life-span changes, 908t
lymphatic system, 645, 868
major functions of, 8t
meiosis, 831–33
muscular system, 333, 868
nervous system, 378, 868
organs of female, 846–56
organs of male, 833–45
respiratory system, 768, 868
skeletal system, 239, 868
urinary system, 804, 868
“Reprogrammed” differentiated cells, 108
Reserpine, 374t, 431
Residual volume (RV), 752, 754t
Resorption, and bone remodeling, 200
Respiration.
See also
Aerobic respiration;
Anaerobic respiration; Breathing;
Cellular respiration; Respiratory
system
characteristics of life, 8t
deF
nition, 736
Respiratory acidosis, 824
Respiratory alkalosis, 824, 825–26
Respiratory areas, 755–57
Respiratory bronchioles, 743, 745f
Respiratory capacities, 752–53, 754t
Respiratory center, 409, 822
Respiratory cycle, 752
Respiratory disorder, 756
Respiratory distress syndrome, 750.
See
also
Acute respiratory distress
syndrome
Respiratory membrane, 760–62
Respiratory system
alveolar gas exchanges, 759–62
autonomic stimulation, 430t
breathing mechanism, 747, 750–55
Nicotinic receptors; Sensory
receptors; Trace amine-associated
receptors
cell membrane, 80
homeostasis, 9
refl
ex arc, 393t
sensory, 439
Receptor cells, 469
Receptor-mediated endocytosis, 97, 98, 100t
Receptor proteins, 81t
Recessive inheritance, 920–22, 923
Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), 722
Recruitment, of motor units, 297–98
Rectal artery, 598, 599f
Rectal veins, 605
Rectouterine pouch, 848f
Rectum,
35,
37,
41,
45,
651, 653f, 687, 688f,
799f, 848f
Rectus abdominis muscle,
31
32,
41,
44
45,
305f, 312f, 320, 321f, 322t,
347
Rectus femoris muscle,
32,
34
36,
45,
305f,
324f, 325f, 327f, 328,
344,
350
Red F
bers, 299
Red blood cell(s), 79f, 95f, 162, 526–30, 531t.
See also
Anemia; Hemoglobin
Red blood cell count (RBCC), 527, 941
Red blood cell distribution width
(RBCDW), 941
Red marrow, 203, 225
Red nucleus, 407
Red pulp, of spleen, 624, 625
Reeve, Christopher, 397
Referred pain, 441–42
Refl
ex arcs, 389, 391f, 393t
Refl
ex behavior, 390–91, 394, 754
Refl
ex sympathetic dystrophy, 442
Refraction disorders, 472
Refractory period, of nerve impulse, 370
Regeneration, and injuries to nervous
system, 364, 397
Regulation
of bile release, 678
of cardiac cycle, 568–72
of electrolyte intake and output, 815–18
of gastric secretions, 668–69
of glomerular F
ltration rate, 790
of hydrogen ion concentration, 820–24
hypothalamus, 407
of male sex hormones, 846
of pain impulses, 443–44
of pancreatic secretion, 672
of small intestine secretions, 683
of urine concentration and volume,
794–96
of water intake and output, 813–15
Relative position, terms of, 21
Relative refractory period, 370
Relaxation, of muscles, 293, 294t
Relaxin, 884, 885t
REM-sleep behavior disorder, 409t
Renal agenesis, 802t
Renal arteries, 593, 601f, 778f, 779,
780f, 898f
Renal baroreceptors, 790
Renal capsule, 776, 778f
Renal clearance, 798
Renal columns, 776, 778f
Pulmonary valve, 557, 558f, 559f, 560t
Pulmonary veins,
35,
557, 558f, 560f, 562f,
591f, 592, 593f, 745f, 898f
Pulmonic sound, 565
Pulse, and blood pressure, 582, 584, 597.
See also
Heart rate
Punnett squares, 920, 921f
Pupil, of eye, 467
PuriF ed protein derivative (PPD), 639
Purines, 126
Purkinje F
bers, 567
Pus, 533
Putamen, 404
P wave, 568
Pyloric antrum, 666
Pyloric canal, 666
Pyloric sphincter, 651, 666, 667f, 670f, 672f
Pylorus, 666f, 667f
Pyramidal cells, 402
Pyramidal tracts, 395
Pyridostigmine bromide, 293
Pyridoxal, 715
Pyridoxamine, 715
Pyridoxine, 715
Pyrimidines, 126–27
Pyruvic acid, 944
Q
QRS complex, 568, 570f
Quadrate lobe, 673, 674f
Quadratus lumborum muscle,
37,
308,
309f, 310
Quadriceps femoris muscle group, 277f,
324f, 328
Quaternary structure, of protein, 66, 67f
Quinlan, Karen Ann, 383
Q wave, 568
R
Radial artery, 597, 601f
Radial collateral ligament, 272,
273
Radial muscles, 468
Radial nerves, 421
Radial set, 468
Radial tuberosity, 228, 230f
Radial veins, 602, 607f
Radiation, 182
Radioactive isotopes, 53, 54, 70, 904t
Radiocarpal joint, 270t
Radiology, 25
Radioulnar joints
distal, 270t
proximal, 270t
Radius, 206, 228, 230f, 231t,
273,
303
Radon, 56
Ramus, 208t, 214
Ransome, Joseph, 438
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, 409
Rate-limiting enzyme, 118
Reactants, 58
Receptive relaxation, 654
Receptor(s).
See also
Adrenergic receptors;
Alpha receptors; Beta receptors; CCRS
receptors; Muscarinic receptors;
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