1000
INDEX
Palatine processes, 212
Palatine tonsils, 657, 738f
Paleontology, 193
Pallidotomy, 406
Palmaris longus, 317f, 319,
344
Palmar region, 23, 25f
Palpebrae superioris, 437
Pancreas,
36,
44
45,
487t, 492, 509–11, 604f,
653f, 671–72, 777f
Pancreatic acinar cells, 671
Pancreatic amylase, 671
Pancreatic duct, 671, 672f
Pancreatic glands, 430t
Pancreatic islets, 509–11
Pancreatic juice, 671–72
Pancreatic lipase, 671, 683t
Pancreatic secretion, 672
Pantothenic acid, 714–15, 717t
Papillae, 448, 657
Papillary muscle, 552, 557, 559f
Para-aminohippuric acid (PAH), 798
Paracrine secretions, 483
Paranasal sinuses, 214f
Parasomnias, 409t
Parasympathetic division, of autonomic
nervous system, 424, 426, 428f
Parasympathetic impulses, 686, 856
Parathyroid gland, 482, 487t, 502–504, 515
Parathyroid hormone (PTH), 205f, 486f, 487t,
491, 502–503, 818, 819f, 884, 885t
Parathyroid hyperplasia, 483
Parietal bones, 208, 209f, 210t, 213f, 215f,
216t, 218f,
245–46, 255–56,
341
Parietal cells, 666, 667f
Parietal lobe, 399, 400f, 401f, 402, 403t
Parietal membrane, 1
Parietal pericardium, 12, 554
Parietal peritoneum, 14, 777f, 799f
Parietal pleura, 12, 747
Parkinson disease, 319, 373t, 406
Parotid gland,
346,
661, 662f, 663t
“Paroxysmal extreme pain disorder,” 82
Partially complete protein, 705
Partial pressure, 757
Partial thromboplastin time (PTT), 541
Parturition, 899–902
Passive aging, 909
Passive processes, for movements in and
out of cell, 100t
Patella, 206, 235, 238t, 277f, 324f, 329f,
344,
351–52
Patellar dislocation, 235
Patellar ligament, 276, 277f, 324f, 328, 329f,
344,
352
Patellar region, 23, 25f
Patellar refl
ex, 390, 392f
Patellar surface, 236f
Patellar tendon, 328
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), 905
Pathogen, 616
Pathologic fracture, 202
Pathology, 25
Pattern baldness, 179
PCP, 377
Peanut allergy, 617
Pectin, 701
Pectineus, 324f, 327t
Osmosis, 93–94, 100t
Osmotic diuresis, 792
Osmotic pressure, 94, 535
Osseus labyrinth, 453, 454f
Osseus tissue, 143
OssiF
cation, and bone development, 200t
Osteoarthritis, 278, 279t
Osteoblasts, 106, 160, 192, 197
Osteocalcin, 201
Osteoclasts, 192, 198, 203f
Osteocytes, 143, 161, 195, 197
Osteogenesis imperfecta, 157t, 197f, 924
Osteomalacia, 200, 712
Osteon, 161, 195, 196f, 240
Osteonectin, 201
Osteopenia, 204
Osteopontin, 201
Osteoporosis, 157, 203, 204, 725
Otic region, 23, 25f
Otitis media, 210, 453
Otolaryngology, 25
Otoliths, 459
Otosclerosis, 459
Outer ear, 450–51
Outer F
brous layer, 849
Outer tunic, 465–66
Oval window, 452
Ovarian follicles, 847, 851f
Ovarian ligament, 847, 849f, 853f
Ovary,
35
36,
512, 847–49, 853f, 857t
Overnutrition, 723
Overweight, and obesity, 708
Ovulation, 851–52, 853f, 863
Oxaloacetic acid, 944, 946f
Oxidation, 120, 819
Oxygen
atomic structure, 53t
chemical constituents of cells, 61, 62t
control of breathing, 757–58, 760
diffusion into cell, 92
electron transport chain, 946–47
elemental composition of human body, 52t
gas transport, 762–63, 764f, 767t
muscular contraction, 294–95
requirements for life, 7, 9t
Oxygen-carrying capacity, 527
Oxygen debt, 121, 295
Oxygen free radicals, 710
Oxygen saturation, 941
Oxyhemoglobin, 526, 763, 764f
Oxytocin, 301, 482, 486f, 487t, 493, 498,
499, 899–900, 901
P
Pacemaker, 566
Packed cell volume (PCV), 523
Paganini, Niccolò, 263
Pain
ion channels, 82
receptors, 439, 440
sense of, 440–44
treatment of, 445
Pain nerve pathways, 442–43
Palate, 234t, 657
Palatine bone, 209f, 211f, 213–14, 215f,
249, 251
Olympic Committee, 489
Omega-3 fatty acids, 704
Oncogenes, 104
Oncology, 24
Oocytes, 831.
See also
Primary oocyte;
Secondary oocyte
Oogenesis, 830, 849, 850f
Ophthalmic artery, 597
Ophthalmic division, 415
Ophthalmic vein, 602f
Ophthalmology, 24
Opiates, 375, 377
Opsin, 473
Opsonization, 636t
Optic canal, 209f, 211f, 213f, 217t,
257
Optic chiasma, 382, 405, 475
Optic disc, 469
Optic foramina, 414
Optic nerve,
42,
414, 417t, 466
Optic radiations, 476
Optic tracts, 405, 476
Oral cavity, 12,
39,
656
Oral contraceptives, 859, 864–65, 904t
Oral glucose tolerance test, 512
Oral region, 23, 25f
Orbicularis oculi, 305f, 306, 307f,
346,
437,
462, 465t
Orbicularis oris, 305f, 307f,
346
Orbit, of skull, 234t,
253
Orbital cavities, 12
Orbital F
ssure
inferior, 209f, 217t,
247
superior, 209f, 211f, 213f, 217t,
247,
254,
257
Orbital region, 1, 23, 25f
Orbital surface,
253
Orchiectomy, 835
Oregon, and policies on dying and
death, 907
Organ(s).
See also
Organ systems
deF nition, 171
levels of organization, 4, 5f
Organelle, 4, 5f
Organic chemicals, 60, 61–69
Organism, 4, 5f, 9t.
See also
Microorganisms
Organ systems.
See also
Cardiovascular
system; Digestive system; Endocrine
system; Integumentary system;
Lymphatic system; Muscular system;
Nervous system; Reproductive
system; Respiratory system; Skeletal
system; Urinary system
description of, 14–19
levels of organization, 4, 5f
major functions of, 8t
Orgasm, 844, 856
Origin, of skeletal muscles, 303–304
Oropharynx, 663, 738f
Orthopedics, 25
Orthostatic intolerance, 585
Orthotic device, 308
Osmolality, 941, 943
Osmolarity, 816–17
Osmoles, 817
Osmoreceptor(s), 498, 813–14, 815
Osmoreceptor–ADH mechanism, 815
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