998
INDEX
Myelencephalon, 398, 400t
Myelin, 356, 357f, 358f, 359
Myelinated axons, 358, 359f, 364f, 371
Myelin sheath, 356
Myenteric plexus, 656
Myoblasts, 106
Myocardial infarction, 563
Myocardium, 552, 555, 556f, 557t
Myoepithelial cells, 902, 903f
MyoF
brils, 89, 284, 287
Myoglobin, 294, 720
Myogram, 284
Myometrium, 853f, 854, 855
Myopia, 472
Myosin, 287, 288f, 289
Myosin chains, 608
Myositis ossiF
cans, 328
Myostatin inhibitors, 489t
N
Nacre, 204
NAD
+
, 944
Nails, of F
ngers, 177, 178f
Nanotechnology, 145
Narcolepsy, 409t
Nasal bones, 209f, 210f, 213f, 214, 215f,
216t, 218f,
245–47,
341
Nasal cavity, 12,
38,
213f, 737, 747t
Nasal conchae, 737, 738f
inferior,
39,
209f, 213f, 214, 216t,
247
middle, 212, 213f, 215f,
247,
253
superior, 212, 213f
Nasal region, 1, 23, 25f
Nasal septum,
42,
737
Nash, Molly, 883
Nasolacrimal duct, 464
Nasopharynx, 663, 664f, 738f
Natalizumab, 360
National Human Neural Stem Cell
Resource, 354
National Institute on Aging, 334, 910
National Institutes of Health, 261, 843
Natural killer (NK) cells, 627, 628t
Naturally acquired active immunity, 638, 639t
Naturally acquired passive immunity,
638, 639t
Nausea, 671
Navicular, 237f
Neanderthals, and genetic analysis, 179
Nearsightedness, 472
Neck
anatomical, 226, 229f
arteries, 595f, 596–97
of bladder, 799–800
of femur, 236f
of rib, 223
surface anatomy,
341
surgical, 226, 229f
of tooth, 659
veins, 602
Necrosis, 173
Negative feedback, 9, 492, 527
Negative nitrogen balance, 706
Neon, 53t
Neonatal period, of development, 875,
904–905, 908t
Motor neurons, 289, 353, 361, 362t, 391f, 393t
Motor speech area, 401f, 402
Motor unit, 290, 297–98
Mountain climbing, 763
Mouth, 653f, 656–60
Movement
bone function, 202
characteristics of life, 8t
organ systems, 14
Mucin, 152
Mucosa, 653, 655t, 665f
Mucosal layer, of vagina, 855
Mucous cells, 660, 666, 667f, 668
Mucous coat, 798, 800
Mucous membranes, 163, 653
Mucous-secreting glands, 682
Muscular coat, 798
Muscular layer, of vagina, 855
Mucus, 152, 660, 668t
Multifactorial genetic traits, 924–26
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), 483
Multiple motor unit summation, 297–98
Multiple sclerosis (MS), 360, 637, 642t
Multipolar neurons, 353, 360, 362t
Multipotent adult progenitor cell, 526
Murmur, heart, 565
Muscarine, 429
Muscarinic receptors, 429
Muscle(s).
See
Muscle F
ber; Muscle tissue;
Muscular system;
specif
c muscles
Muscle cells, 77f, 121
Muscle fatigue, 296
Muscle F
ber, 177, 387, 412, 414
Muscle impulse, 290
Muscle relaxants, 82t
Muscle spindles, 444, 446t
Muscle strain, 289
Muscle tissue, 146t, 163–64
Muscle tone, 298
Muscular coat, 800
Muscular dystrophy, 289.
See also
Duchenne
muscular dystrophy
Muscular layer, of alimentary canal, 654, 655t
Muscular responses, 296–99
Muscular system.
See also
Muscle F
ber;
Muscle tissue; Skeletal muscles
cardiac muscle, 301
cardiovascular system, 333, 610
digestive system, 333, 692
endocrine system, 333, 516
eye, 465t
integumentary system, 188, 333
life-span changes, 334, 908t
lymphatic system, 333, 645
major functions of, 8t, 14, 16f
muscular responses, 296–99
nervous system, 333, 378
reproductive system, 333, 868
respiratory system, 333, 768
skeletal system, 239, 333
smooth muscles, 300–301
urinary system, 333, 804
Musculocutaneous nerve,
34,
420
Mutagen, 136
Mutant phenotype, 920
Mutations, genetic, 114, 135–37, 920
Myasthenia gravis (MG), 291, 293, 642t
Microfl
ora, 652, 689
Microglia, 362f, 363
Micrographia, 406
Microgravity, 201, 585
Micrometers, and size of cells, 76
Micronutrients, 699
Microorganisms, 652.
See also
Bacteria;
Viruses
MicroRNAs, 133, 136
Microscopes, 79, 836
Microtubules, 88, 89, 90f, 91t
Microvilli, 146, 148f, 681, 682f, 791
Micturition, 774, 802–803
Micturition refl
ex center, 802
Midbrain, 398, 399f, 400t, 407, 412t
Middle ear, 12, 205t, 451–53
Middle peduncles, 410
Middle phalanx, 230f, 237f,
344–45
Middle tunic, 466–68
Midpiece, of sperm cell, 837
Migraine, 356
Milk, production and secretion of,
902–903, 904
Milstein, Cesar, 636
Mineral(s), and nutrition, 717–22, 726
Mineralocorticoid, 506
Minor calyx, 776, 778f
Minoxidil, 179
Minute ventilation, 754
Mitchell, S. Weir, 442
Mitochondria, 83–84, 86f, 87, 91t
Mitochondrial DNA, 84
Mitochondrial membrane, 946, 947f
Mitosis, 75, 100–101, 102f, 109, 910
Mitoxantrone, 360
Mitral valve, 557, 558f, 559f, 560t
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP), 557
Mixed-lineage leukemia, 537
Mixed nerves, 412, 413f
Mixing movements, in alimentary canal,
654, 656f
M lines, 287, 288f
Modiolus, 454f
Molding, infant skull, 216
Molars, 659
Molecular formula, 53
Molecule(s), 4, 5f, 51t, 53, 54, 68
Monoamine(s), 373
Monoamine oxidase, 374, 430–31
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, 374t
Monoclonal antibodies, 636–37
Monocytes, 532, 534t, 535t, 627
Mononuclear phagocytic system, 627
Mononucleosis, 534t
Monosaccharides, 50, 62, 63f, 684f, 686t,
700, 701
Monosomy, 916, 929
Monounsaturated fatty acids, 63
Mons pubis,
31,
830, 855
“Morning-after pill,” 865
“Morning sickness,” 885
Morphine, 375, 377
Morula, 875, 879, 886t
Motion sickness, 461
Motor areas, of cerebral cortex, 402
Motor end plate, 290
Motor nerves, 412
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