996
INDEX
Lumbar trunk, 617, 619f
Lumbar veins, 604
Lumbar vertebrae,
37,
219f, 222, 222f, 223t
Lumbar vertebral body,
40
41
Lumbosacral plexus, 421, 423
Lumen, 653, 665f, 855
Lumpectomy, 865
Lunate, 230f
Lung(s),
33
35,
43
44,
46,
747–52
Lung cancer, 637t, 739, 818
Luteinizing hormone (LH), 487t, 491, 492,
497, 499t, 845, 846, 858, 859t
Lyme disease, 274, 278, 279t
Lymph, 617, 619–20, 621
Lymphadenitis, 622
Lymphangitis, 622
Lymphatic capillaries, 617, 618f, 620
Lymphatic duct, 618, 619f
Lymphatic obstructions, 817
Lymphatic pathways, 617–19
Lymphatic system.
See also
Immune system
and immunity
cardiovascular system, 610, 645
digestive system, 645, 692
endocrine system, 516, 645
integumentary system, 188, 645
life-span changes, 644, 908t
lymphatic pathways, 617–19
lymph movement, 621
lymph nodes, 617, 620f, 621–23, 626t
major functions of, 8t, 16–17
muscular system, 333, 645
nervous system, 378, 645
reproductive system, 645, 868
respiratory system, 645, 768
skeletal system, 239, 645
thymus and spleen, 623–25, 626t
tissue fl
uid and lymph, 619–20
urinary system, 645, 804
Lymphatic trunks, 617–19, 620f
Lymphatic vessels, 617, 619f, 620f
Lymph nodes, 617, 620f, 621–23, 626t
Lymph nodules, 621
Lymphocytes, 532, 534, 535t, 625, 628–29
Lymph sinuses, 622
Lysine, 135t, 705
Lysis, 636t
Lysosomes, 75, 84, 86, 87, 91t, 97
Lysozyme, 464
M
Macromolecule, 4, 5f
Macronutrients, 699, 726
Macrophages, 143, 155, 156t, 522, 532, 625,
631f
Macula, 459, 461f
Macula densa, 782
Macula lutea, 437, 469, 473
Macular degeneration, 477
“Mad cow disease,” 66
Magnesium
atomic structure, 53t
blood tests, 941
chemical constituents of cells, 62t
elemental composition of human
body, 52t
Lingual artery, 595f, 596
Lingual frenulum, 657
Lingual tonsil, 651, 657, 738f
Linoleic acid, 703, 704
Linolenic acid, 703
Lip(s), 657, 660t
Lipase, 118
Lipids
blood levels, 941
cell membrane, 79, 80
deF nition, 50, 698
important groups of, 65t
nutrition, 702–704, 706t
structure and function, 62–64, 69t
Lipochromes, 926
Lipoid nephrosis, 793
Lissencephaly, 398
Lithium, 52f, 53t, 55f
Liver,
33,
34,
38,
40,
44
45,
49
carbohydrates, 701
dietary iron, 721
digestive system, 653f, 673–78
F
brosis, 154
kidneys, 777f
lipids, 703
transplant, 676
veins from abdominal viscera, 604f
vitamin B, 715
Liver F
brosis, 154
Lobar bronchi, 743
Lobes.
See also
±rontal lobe; Occipital
lobe; Parietal lobe; Quadrate lobe;
Temporal lobe
of liver,
35,
48,
673, 674f
of lung,
34
Lobules, of lung, 747
Local potential changes, 368
Long bones, 193, 194–95
Long head biceps brachii muscle,
32
Longissimus capitis muscle, 309f, 310t
Longissumus cervicis muscle, 310t
Longissumus thoracis muscle, 309f, 310t
Longitudinal F
bers, 654
Longitudinal F
ssure, 398, 400f, 405f, 410f
Longitudinal ligaments, anterior, 220
Longitudinal section, 22, 23f
Long Life ±amily Study, 910
Long-QT syndrome, 82
Long-term synaptic potentiation, 404
Loose connective tissue, 155
Lordosis, 225
Lorenzo’s Oil
(F lm 1992), 87
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL), 97, 608,
684, 703, 940
Lower esophageal sphincter, 665
Lower limbs, 205t, 206, 234–38, 598–99,
604–605, 606f
Lower motor neuron syndrome, 397
Lower respiratory tract, 737
LSD, 377
Lucid, Shannon, 585
Lumbar arteries, 593, 594f, 598, 601f
Lumbar curvature, 219
Lumbar enlargement, 387, 389f
Lumbar nerves, 418f, 419
Lumbar puncture, 388
Lumbar region, 22, 23, 24f, 25f
Left upper quadrant (LUQ), of abdomen,
22, 24f
Left ventricle,
44,
46,
558f
Left ventricular assist device (LVAD), 566
Leg, muscles of, 324f, 325–28, 329f, 330f,
332t, 334,
345,
351
Lens, 466–67
Lens F bers, 467
Leptin, 700
Lesser pelvis, 233–34
Lesser sciatic notch, 232f
Lesser trochanter, 236f, 275f
Lesser tubercle, 226, 229f
Lesser wing, of sphenoid bone, 211f,
254
Leucine, 135t
Leukemia, 536–37, 934
Leukocytes, 522, 530, 533, 535t
Leukocytosis, 522, 533
Leukopenia, 533
Leukotrienes, 639
Levator ani, 320, 322f, 323t,
346
Levator palpebrae superioris, 462, 465t
Levator scapulae, 311f, 312, 313t
Levers, 301–302, 304f
Lewy bodies, 406f
Lexical-gustatory synesthesia, 447
Life.
See also
Life-span changes
characteristics of, 6, 8t
maintenance of, 7–12
span of human, 910–11
Life cycle, of red blood cells, 528f
Life expectancy, 911
Life span, of human, 910–11
Life-span changes.
See also
Age; Aging
cardiovascular system, 606, 609, 611
digestive system, 690, 693
endocrine system, 515
immune system, 644
joints, 278–80
muscular system, 334
nervous system, 431
nutrition, 728
respiratory system, 767, 769
senses, 476–77
skeletal system, 238, 240
skin, 186–87
urinary system, 803, 805
water imbalances, 816
Ligament(s)
collagenous F
bers, 155
dense regular connective tissue, 158
joint capsule, 264
knee joint, 277f
shoulder joint, 271, 272f
Ligamentum arteriosum, 593f, 905
Ligamentum capitis, 275f
Ligamentum teres, 905
Light adapted eye, 475
Light chains (L-chains), 634
Light microscope, 79
Light refraction, 471, 473
Lignin, 701
Limbic system, 407
Limited transport capacity, 791
Linea, 208t
Linea alba,
32,
312f, 320, 321f,
347
Linea aspera, 236f
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