994
INDEX
Inorganic chemicals, 60, 61
Inorganic mineral salts, 203
Insecticides, 293
Insertion, of skeletal muscle, 303–304
Insomnia, 373t, 409t
Inspiration, 747, 750–51, 759f
Inspiratory capacity (IC), 753, 754t
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), 752, 754t
Institute of Medicine, 712
Insula, 400
Insulin, 93, 487t, 489t, 510, 511t, 513, 515,
699–700
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), 495
Integral protein, 81t
Integration, of organ systems, 16
Integrin, 81
Integumentary system.
See also
Skin
autonomic stimulation, 430t
cardiovascular system, 188, 610
digestive system, 188, 692
endocrine system, 188, 516
life-span changes, 186–87, 908t
lymphatic system, 188, 645
major functions of, 8t, 14, 16f
muscular system, 188, 333
nervous system, 188, 378
reproductive system, 188, 868
respiratory system, 188, 768
skeletal system, 188, 239
urinary system, 188, 804
Intensity, of vocal sound, 741
Interatrial septum, 555
Intercalated disc, 143, 164, 284, 301, 302f
Intercarpal joint, 270t
Intercellular junctions, 144, 146t
Intercondylar eminence, 236f
Intercondylar fossa, 236f
Intercostal arteries, 592, 598, 601f
Intercostal muscles, 750–51, 752
external,
32
33,
37,
312f
internal,
33,
37,
312f
Intercostal nerves, 423
Intercostal trunks, 617, 619f
Intercostal veins, 603
Interferons, 626, 637
Interleukin(s), 530
Interleukin-1 (IL-1), 628, 630
Interleukin-2 (IL-2), 630
Interleukin-6 (IL-6), 334
Interlobar arteries, 779, 780f
Intermediary metabolism, 115
Intermediate cuneiform, 237f
Intermediate ±
bers, 299
Internal accessory sex organs, 837–42
Internal acoustic meatus, 213f, 215f,
217t,
255
Internal anal sphincter, 320
Internal environment, 9, 10f
Internal respiration, 736
Interneurons, 361, 362t, 393t
Internodal atrial muscle, 566
Interosseous ligament, 261
Interosseous membrane, 261
Interphase, 75, 100
Interstitial cell(s), 835, 845t
Interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
(ICSH), 845
breastfeeding and formula, 904
dehydration, 798, 816
drugs of abuse and withdrawal
symptoms, 886
kidneys, 798
postnatal period, 904–906, 908t
premature, 893
respiratory distress syndrome, 750
skull, 216, 218f
sleep apnea, 757
vitamin K de±
ciency, 713
Infection.
See also
Bacteria; Viruses
causes of death, 911t
of ear, 453
of urinary tract, 800
Inferior, as term of relative position, 21
Inferior articulating process, 220
Inferior iliac spine, 232f
Inferior peduncles, 410
Inferior rectus, 464, 465t
Infertility, 842–43, 851, 861.
See also
In vitro
fertilization
Infl
ammation
antibodies, 636t
blood vessel disorders, 581
de± nition, 183, 616
edema, 817
endocrime system and homeostasis, 514
major actions of immune response,
627, 628t
urinary tract, 800
Infl
ammatory bowel disease, 691
Infl
ation refl
ex, 758
Infl
uenza, 632, 638, 765, 911t
Infraglenoid tubercle, 227f
Infraorbital foramen, 209f, 217t,
247–48.
See also
Supraorbital foramen
Infrapatellar bursa, 265, 277
Infraspinatus muscle, 314t, 316,
342,
348–49
Infraspinous fossa, 226, 227f
Infraspinous muscle, 306f, 313f
Infundibulum, 405, 407, 492, 852,
853f, 877f
Inguinal canal,
33,
593, 833
Inguinal hernia, 835
Inguinal region, 23, 25f, 622
Inhalation, 735
Inhaled particles, 749
Inheritance, modes of, 918–22.
See also
Genetic(s)
Inhibin, 845
Inhibitory postsynaptic potential
(IPSP), 372
Initial segment, 368
Injectable contraception, 865
Injury, as cause of death, 911t.
See also
Infl ammation; Spinal cord injuries;
Traumatic brain injury
Innate (nonspeci±
c) defenses, 626–28
Inner cell mass, 880
Inner ear, 453–57
Inner membrane, of mitochondria, 946
Inner tunic, 469
Inner vascular layer, 849
Innervation, of alimentary tube, 656
Innocence Project, 130
Iliac arteries, 598, 599f, 600–601f
internal, 898f
Iliac crest,
37,
231, 232f,
343
Iliac fossa, 231, 232f
Iliac region, 22, 24f
Iliac spine.
See
Inferior iliac spine; Superior
iliac spine
Iliacus,
37,
323, 324f, 327t,
350
Iliac veins, 604, 605, 606f, 607f
Iliocostalis cervicis, 309f, 310t
Iliocostalis lumorum, 309f, 310t
Iliocostalis thoracis, 309f, 310t
Iliofemoral ligament, 274, 275f
Iliolumbar artery, 598, 599f
Iliotibial tract, 325f, 331f,
344
Ilium,
35,
231, 232f, 680
Illinois Masonic Medical Center, 883
Immediate-reaction allergy, 639, 640f
Immune complex reactions, 639
Immune system and immunity
allergic reactions, 639–41
antigens, 628
autoimmunity, 641–43
B cells and humoral immune response,
632–35
body defense against infection, 625–26
de± nition, 616
immune responses, 637
immunotherapy, 636
innate (nonspeci±
c) defenses, 626–28
lymphocyte origins, 628–29
practical classi±
cation of, 638
T cells and cellular immune response,
629–30, 631f
transcytosis, 98
transplantation and tissue rejection, 641
Immunoglobulin(s), 633, 634–35
Immunoglobulin A (IgA), 635
Immunoglobulin D (IgD), 635
Immunoglobulin E (IgE), 635
Immunoglobulin G (IgG), 635
Immunoglobulin M (IgM), 635
Immunology, 24
Immunosuppressive drugs, 641
Immunotherapy, 636–37
Impact resection arthroplasty, 276
Implantable cardioverter de±
brillator
(ICD), 553
Implantation, of blastocyst, 882
Impulse processing, and nervous system,
374–76
“Inborn error of metabolism,” 137–38
Incisive foramen, 211f, 217t
Incisive fossa,
249, 251
Incisors, 659
Inclusions, 89
Incomplete dominance, 922
Incompletely penetrant genotype, 924
Incontinence, in elderly, 805
Incontinentia pigmenti, 928
Incus, 451–52
Indirect inguinal hernia, 835
Inert atoms, 55
Infants.
See also
Children; Development;
Fetus
adipose tissue, 158
antibodies, 635
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