989
INDEX
muscle contraction, 294
nutrition, 706–709, 728t
Energy balance, 708
Energy shells, 55
Enkephalins, 373t, 374, 443
Enriched nutrients, 712
Enterogastric refl
ex, 670, 671f
Enterokinase, 671, 683t
Environmental factors.
See also
Body
temperature; Internal environment
aging, 20
cancer, 104–105
height and skin color, 926
human life span, 910
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), 736
Enzymes
deF
nition, 64, 114
digestive system, 683t
lysosomes, 86
membrane proteins, 80, 81t
metabolic reactions, 117, 118f
peroxisomes, 86
Eosinophils, 531, 532f, 534t, 535t
Ependyma, 353, 362f, 363
Ephedrine, 431
Epicardium, 555, 556f, 557t
Epicondyle, 208t, 226.
See also
Lateral
epicondyle; Medial epicondyle
Epicranial aponeurosis, 306, 307f
Epicranius, 306, 307f
Epidemiology, 24
Epidermal growth factor, 104
Epidermis, 170, 172, 173–74, 176, 186
Epidermolysis bulbosa, 89
Epididymis,
34,
41,
834f, 835, 836f, 838,
839f, 845t
Epidural space, 384
Epigastric arteries, 598, 599f
Epigastric region, 22, 24f
Epiglottic cartilage, 740, 741f
Epiglottis, 663f, 664, 735, 738f, 740,
741f, 742
Epilepsy, 373t
Epimysium, 286
Epinephrine, 426, 429, 487t, 504–505, 506t
Epineurium, 412, 413f
Epiphyseal plate, 198–200, 201f
Epiphysis, 194
Episiotomy, 901
Epitestosterone, 489
Epithelial cells, 77f, 145, 456, 682, 891
Epithelial membranes, 163
Epithelial tissue, 143, 144–52, 153t
Equilibrium, 459
Erectile dysfunction, 844
Erection, of penis, 844
Erector spinae, 308, 310,
342
Erythroblast(s), 527
Erythroblastosis fetalis, 547–48, 624
Erythrocystosis, 548t
Erythrocytes, 522, 526, 535t, 942
Erythropoiesis, 527
Erythropoietic protoporphyria, 138f
Erythropoietin (EPO), 489, 513, 522,
527, 777
Esophageal arteries, 592
Esophageal hiatus, 651, 665
Elements, 51–52, 53t, 939
Elevation, of joint, 269f, 270
Elimination, of urine, 798–803
Ellipsoidal joint, 265–66
Embolism, 522, 541
Embolus, 541
Embryo, 849, 888f.
See also
±etus
Embryonic disc, 885
Embryonic stage, of development, 885–92
Embryo proper, 880
Emergency department, 2
Emission, of sperm cells, 844, 845f
Emotional upset, and breathing patterns, 758
Emphysema, 739, 756
EmulsiF
cation, 678
Enamel, of tooth, 659
Encephalitis, 382, 644
End-diastolic volume (EDV), 585
Endocarditis, 557, 564–65, 567
Endocardium, 555, 556f, 557t
Endochondral bones, 197–98, 199f
Endochondral ossiF
cation, 198
Endocrine glands, 150, 483, 484f, 485f
Endocrine system.
See also
Hormones
adrenal glands, 504–509
autonomic stimulation, 430t
cardiovascular system, 516, 610
deF
nition, 483
digestive system, 516, 692
general characteristics of, 483–84
hormonal secretions, 491–92
hormone action, 484–91
integumentary system, 188, 516
life-span changes, 515, 908t
lymphatic system, 516, 645
major functions of, 8t, 16, 17f
muscular system, 333, 516
nervous system, 378, 516
pancreas, 509–11
parathyroid glands, 502–504
pineal gland, 511–13
pituitary gland, 492–99
reproductive system, 516, 868
respiratory system, 516, 768
skeletal system, 239, 516
stress, 513–15
thyroid gland, 499–501
urinary system, 516, 804
Endocrinology, 24
Endocytosis, 96–98, 100t, 792
Endoderm, 885, 887f
Endodermal cells, 885
Endolymph, 453
Endometriosis, 861
Endometrium, 853f, 854, 855, 859, 882f
Endomysium, 286
Endoneurium, 412, 413f
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), 75, 82–83,
84f, 91t
Endorphins, 373t, 375, 444
Endoscopic papillotomy, 679
Endosteum, 194–95
Endothelium, of artery, 574, 575f, 576
End-stage renal disease (ESRD), 779
End-systolic volume (ESV), 585
Energy.
See also
Adenosine triphosphate
metabolic reactions, 119–20
Duchenne muscular dystrophy, 137, 289,
923, 928
Ducts, of eye, 463
Ductus arteriosus, 897–98, 899t, 906t
Ductus deferens,
34,
834f, 835, 836f, 839–
40, 845t
Ductus venosus, 897, 898f, 899t, 906t
Duodenum,
35
36,
666f, 667f, 670f, 671f,
672f, 673f, 680
Dural sinuses, 384
Dura mater,
42,
384, 387f, 388f
DwarF
sm, 497.
See also
Pituitary dwarF
sm
Dynamic equilibrium, 459, 460, 705–706
Dysgeusia, 450t
Dyslexia, 402
Dysosmia, 450t
Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, 157t
Dystrophin, 137, 289, 928
E
Ear, 458t.
See also
Hearing
Ear infection, 453
Eccentric muscle contraction, 298, 299f
Eccrine glands, 180, 182t, 430t
Ectoderm, 875, 885, 887f
Ectodermal cells, 885
Ectopic pregnancy, 882
Edema
deF
nition, 552, 810, 816
F
ltration, 94
heart failure, 579, 817
hypoproteinemia, 816–17
infl
ammation, 817
lymph system, 620, 621, 817
nephrotic syndrome, 793
Edmonton protocol, for diabetes, 513
Effectors, 9, 355, 393t
Efferent arteriole, 780f, 781, 783f, 786f
Efferent lymphatic vessels, 622
Efferent neurons, 389, 391f
Egg cells, 846, 849, 877f
Egg donor, 831, 879
Egypt (ancient), and diabetes, 513
Ehrlich, Paul, 636
Ejaculation, 830, 844, 845f
Ejaculatory duct, 834f, 840
Elastic cartilage, 160, 162t
Elastic connective tissue, 158, 159f, 162t
Elastic F
bers, 155, 156t
Elastic recoil, of lung tissue, 751
Elastin, 155
Elbow joint, 270t, 272–73
Electrocardiogram, 552, 568, 569–70f
Electroencephalogram (EEG), 411
Electrolytes
balance, 811, 815–18
bile, 675
chemistry, 59, 60
deF
nition, 50
intestinal absorption, 685, 686t
plasma, 538
types of, 59t
Electron, 51t, 52
Electron shells, 55
Electron transport chain, 120, 121f, 122–24,
294, 945–47
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