986
INDEX
Citric acid, 944, 946f
Citric acid cycle, 120, 121f, 122, 123f,
294, 944
Classical pathway, of complement, 627
Clavicle,
31
32,
192, 206, 225, 227f, 231t,
272f, 315f,
343
Clavicular notch, 224f
Cleavage, 875, 879–82, 886t
Cleft palate, 213
Cleidocranial dysplasia, 225
Clitoris, 848f, 855–56, 857t
Clomid (clomiphene), 851
Clone, 629
Closed fracture, 202
Clostridium botulinum,
186, 291
Clotting, of blood, 183, 185f, 538–42, 712
Clubfoot, 238
Coagulation, of blood, 538–41
Cobalt, 52t, 54, 715, 721, 723t
Cocaine, 374t, 377, 837, 904t
Cocarboxylase, 713
Coccygeal nerves, 418f, 419
Coccygeus, 320, 323t
Coccyx,
41,
206, 218, 219f, 222, 223t, 232f,
234t,
343,
388f
Cochlea, 437, 453, 455, 456f, 457f
Cochlear branch, 416
Cochlear duct, 453
Cochlear implant, 455
Codominant gene, 922
Codons, 131, 135t
Coenzymes, 114, 119, 714
Cofactors, 118–19
Coitus interruptus, 862, 866t
Cold environment, and homeostasis, 9–10.
See also
Hypothermia
Cold receptors, 440
Colitis, 689
Collagen, 69f, 155, 157, 716
Collagenous F
bers, 155, 156t
Collateral axon, 356
Collateral ganglia, 425–26
Collectin(s), 627
Collecting ducts, 618, 778f, 781–82, 783f,
786f, 797t
Colloid, 499
Colloid osmotic pressure, 535, 578, 812
Colon,
38,
48,
687.
See also
Ascending
colon; Descending colon
Colonoscopy, 691
Colony-stimulating factors (CS±s), 530, 630
Color
eye, 926
hair, 179
skin, 174, 176, 179, 925f, 926
vision, 438, 475, 928
Colorblindness, 438, 928
Colorectal cancer, 637, 691
Colostomy, 691
Colostrum, 902, 904, 905
Columnar epithelial cells, 145, 146
Coma, 409
Combined hormone contraceptives, 864–65,
866t
Comminuted fracture, 202f
Common carotid artery,
32
33,
35
37,
46
47,
592, 593f, 595f, 596, 597f, 601f
development, 906, 908t
ear infections, 453
skull,
259
vaccines and immunity, 638
vision screening programs, 465
Chin, 234t
China, and peanut allergies, 617
Chlamydia infection, 867t
Chloride, 62t, 82, 766, 788t, 818, 940
Chloride shift, 766
Chlorine, 52t, 719–20, 721t
Cholecystectomy, 679
Cholecystogram, 679
Cholecystokinin, 669, 672, 678t
Cholelithiasis, 679
Cholera, 816
Cholesterol, 52, 65f, 80, 97, 608, 702,
703, 940
Cholinergic neurotransmitters, 428
Chondrocyte, 143, 158, 160
Chondrodysplasia, 157t
Chondroitin, 261
Chordae tendineae, 557, 558f, 559f
Chorion, 875, 885, 890f
Chorionic villi, 885, 886
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS), 932, 933t
Choroid artery, 595f
anterior, 597
Choroid coat, 437, 466, 470t
Choroid plexus, 363, 382, 385, 387f
Chromatids, 831
Chromatin, 90, 91t
“Chromatin remodeling,” 132
Chromatophilic substance, 356
Chromium, 722, 723t
Chromosomes, 87, 90, 128f, 916, 918–20,
929–33.
See also
DNA; Gene(s);
Genetic(s); RNA
Chronic glomerulonephritis, 779, 782
Chronic granulomatous disease, 548t
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), 536
Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases
(COPD), 758, 911t
Chronic pain, 442, 445
Chylomicrons, 684
Chyme, 651, 669, 670f, 671f, 673f, 683, 689
Chymopapain, 225
Chymotrypsin, 671, 683t
Cigarette smoke and smoking, 51, 736, 739,
896–97.
See also
Nicotine
Cilia, 87–88, 91t, 146, 854
Ciliary body, 466
Ciliary muscles, 466, 467
Ciliary processes, 466
Circadian rhythms, 512
Circle of Willis, 593
Circular F
bers, 654
Circular muscles, 468
Circular set, 468
Circular sulcus, 400
Circulation, as characteristic of life, 8t
Circumcision, 843
Circumduction, of joint, 268f, 269
Circumfl
ex arteries, 561, 562f, 597f
Circumfl
ex ilian artery, deep, 598
Cisterna chyli, 620f
Cisternae, 83, 288
Cellulose, 701
Cementum, 660
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC), 523, 642
Central canal, 161, 195, 363, 389
Central nervous system (CNS), 354, 355f,
361–63, 364
Central sulcus, 399
Central vein, of liver, 673, 675f
Central venous pressure, 589–90
Centrioles, 86–87, 88f
Centromere, 101, 831
Centrosomes, 86–87, 91t
Cephalic phase, of gastic secretion, 668, 669t
Cephalic region, 23, 25f
Cephalic vein, 602f, 603, 607f
Cerebellar ataxia, 878
Cerebellar cortex, 410
Cerebellar peduncles, 410
Cerebellum,
38
39,
398, 399f, 401f, 405f,
410, 412t
Cerebral aqueduct, 385, 386f, 407
Cerebral arterial circle, 593
Cerebral arteries, 596f, 597
Cerebral cortex, 400–401, 403f
Cerebral hemispheres, 398, 400f, 405f
Cerebral peduncles, 407
Cerebral vascular accident (CVA), 401, 588
Cerebrospinal fl uid (CS±), 385–86, 387f, 388
Cerebrum, 1,
38
39,
395f, 396f, 398–404, 412
Ceruminous glands, 182t, 450
Cervical cancer, 869
Cervical cap, 863, 866t
Cervical curvature, 219
Cervical enlargement, 387, 389f
Cervical nerves, 418
Cervical oriF
ce, 853f, 854
Cervical plexuses, 420
Cervical region, 23, 25f, 622
Cervical vertebrae,
39,
219f, 220–21,
222f, 223t
Cervix, 848f, 853f, 854, 877f
C±TR protein, 919
Chambers, of heart, 555–57
Chaperones, and protein synthesis, 132
Charles I (King of Spain), 797
Cheeks, 656, 660t
Chemical barriers
birth control, 863
infection, 626–27, 628t
Chemical bonds, 52, 55
Chemical digestion, 652
Chemical energy, 120
Chemical reactions, 58–59
Chemistry
chemical constituents of cells, 60–71
deF nition, 51
hormones, 484–85
structure of matter, 51–60
Chemoreceptors, 439, 757–58
Chemotaxis, 636t
Chemotherapy, for breast cancer, 865
Cheyne-Stokes breathing, 909
Chief cells, 666, 667f
Childbirth, 899–902
Children.
See also
Adolescence; Infants
adipose tissue, 158
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