985
INDEX
Carotid body, 597, 758
Carotid canal, 210, 211f, 217t,
249–51
Carotid sinus, 595f, 597
Carotene, 698
Carpal bones, 192, 206, 228f, 229, 231t,
344
Carpal region, 23, 25f
Carpal tunnel syndrome, 424
Carpometacarpal joint, 270t
Carpus, 229
Cartilage, 158, 160
Cartilaginous cells, of epiphyseal plate, 199f
Cartilaginous joints, 262–63, 267t
CASA system, 843
Cat(s), and polydactyly, 231
Catabolism, 114, 115, 116, 126f
Catalysis, of enzymes, 117
Catalysts, 59
Cataract, 477
Catecholamines, 505
Cations, 55
Cauda equina,
40
41,
389, 419
Caudate lobe, of liver, 673, 674f
Caudate nucleus, 404
Causalgia, 442
CCRS receptors, 76
CD4 helper T cells, 76, 630
Cecum,
34
35,
651, 687
Celiac artery,
36,
594f, 601f
Celiac disease, 686
Celiac region, 23, 25f, 686
Cell(s)
aging process, 20
blood, 202–203, 524–34, 535t
cell cycle, 100–103
chemical constituents of, 60–71
composite, 76, 78f
cytoplasm, 81–89
death of, 106, 109
differentiated, 76, 105
division, 101, 103–105
levels of organization, 4, 5f
membrane, 76, 78–81, 82, 91t
movements in and out of, 90–99
nervous system, 356–59
nucleus, 76, 89–90, 91f
shape and function, 77f
sizes of, 76, 77f
stem and progenitor, 105–106
structures and functions of parts, 91t
Cell body, 356, 357f
Cell cycle, 100–103
Cell division, 101, 103–105
Cell membrane, 76, 78–81, 82, 91t
Cell membrane potential, 365–71
Cell specialization, and proteomics, 144
Cell surface proteins, 81t
Cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs), 80, 81
Cellular immune response, 629–30, 631f
Cellular metabolism.
See also
Metabolism
cellular respiration, 119, 120–24
control of reactions, 117–19
energy for, 119–20
nucleic acids, 124–31
processes of, 115–16
Cellular respiration, 119, 120–24, 294–95,
736, 944–47
Cellular turnover, 682
organic chemicals in cells, 61–62, 69t
size of molecules, 63f
Carbon, 52t, 53t.
See also
Carbon dioxide;
Carbon monoxide
Carbonate, 62t
Carbon dioxide
blood tests, 940
chemical constituents of cells, 61, 62t
citric acid cycle, 946f
control of breathing, 757, 758, 763
gas transport, 766–67
molecular structure, 69f
respiratory excretion, 822–23
Carbonic acid, 819, 822
Carbonic anhydrase, 766, 822
Carbon monoxide, 61, 764
Carboxypepidase, 671, 683t
Carcina, 735
Carcinomas, 150, 735
Cardia, 665, 666f
Cardiac center, of medulla oblongata,
408, 586
Cardiac conduction system, 565–67, 611
Cardiac control center, 569–70
Cardiac cycle, 564, 568–72
Cardiac muscle(s), 301, 302f
Cardiac muscle F bers, 565
Cardiac muscle tissue, 164, 165t
Cardiac output (CO), 585
Cardiac veins, 562f, 563
Cardioaccelerator refl
ex centers, 571, 586
Cardioinhibitor refl
ex, 571, 586
Cardiology, 24
Cardiovascular disease, molecular causes
of, 608.
See also
Heart disease
Cardiovascular system
actions, 564–73
arterial system, 592–99, 610
autonomic stimulation, 430t
blood pressure, 580, 582–90
blood vessels, 573–80
deF
nition, 553
digestive system, 610, 692
endocrine system, 516, 610
exercise, 590, 611
fetal blood and circulation, 895,
897–98, 899t
integumentary system, 188, 610
life-span changes, 606, 609, 611, 803,
805, 908t
lymphatic system, 610, 645
major functions of, 8t, 16, 17f
muscular system, 333, 610
nervous system, 378, 610
paths of circulation, 590–92
postnatal development, 905, 906t
reproductive system, 610, 868
respiratory system, 610, 768
skeletal system, 239, 610
structure of heart, 553–63
urinary system, 610, 804
venous system, 600, 602–605, 606f, 607f
Carina, 743, 745
Carotene, 176, 709, 710
Carotid artery,
43,
595f, 601f
external, 596–97
internal, 597
C
Cacosmia, 451
Cadaver dissection, 3
Cadherins, 171
Caffeine, 796, 815, 904t
Calcaneal tendon, 306f, 330, 331f,
345,
352
Calcaneal tuberosity, 236, 237f
Calcaneus, 236, 237f, 331f,
345
Calcitonin, 487t, 491, 501, 503
Calcium
blood clotting, 541t
blood tests, 940
bone loss and supplements, 240
chemical constituents of cells, 62t
electrolyte balance, 818, 819f
elemental composition of human
body, 52t
heart action, 573
ion channels, 82
muscle contraction, 291
nerve impulse conduction, 372
nutrition, 717, 721t
osteopenia and osteoporosis, 204
parathyroid hormone, 503
urine and urine tests, 788t, 943
Calcium channel blockers, 301, 588t
California Cryobank, 876
Calluses, 173
Calmodulin, 301, 491
Calorie, 698, 706, 707t, 723
Calorimeter, 698
Canaliculus (caniculi), 161, 192, 195
Cancer.
See also
Bone cancer; Breast cancer;
Cervical cancer; Leukemia; Prostate
cancer; Skin cancer; Testicular cancer
angiogenesis, 574
basement membranes, 145
causes of death, 911t
characteristics of cells, 104t
chronic pain, 445
deF
nition, 104
dietary supplements, 725
digestive system, 691
DNA microarrays, 933–34
extracellular matrix, 154
hypercalcemia, 818
immune response, 644
immunotherapy, 637
microRNA–based diagnostic tests, 136
steps in development, 105f
Canine teeth, 659
Cannabinoids, 444
Capacitation, of sperm cells, 841
Capillaries, 576–79, 580t, 784–85, 787f.
See
also
Cardiovascular system;
specif
c
capillaries
Capitate, 230f
Capitulum, 226, 229f
Capsule, of connective tissue, 621
Carbaminohemoglobin, 766
Carbohydrates
biomarkers, 51
diet, 702, 706t
metabolic pathways and storage,
124, 126f
nutrition, 700–702
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