983
INDEX
Axis, of cervical vertebra, 221
Axon(s)
action potentials, 369
deF
nition, 353, 354
functions, 164, 356
myelination, 358, 359
neurons, 164, 357f
regeneration, 364
use of term, 438
Axon terminal, 356
Azygos vein,
44,
603, 607f
B
Babinski refl
ex, 394
Back, surface anatomy of,
342
Back pressure, 579
Bacteria
arthritis, 278
cell structure, 76
dental caries, 661
endocarditis, 557
infections, 453, 534t
liver function, 675
microfl
ora, 652, 689
Balance
acid-base, 819–24
electrolytes, 811, 815–18, 820
water, 811, 813–15
Baldness, 179
Balkan endemic nephropathy, 775
Ball-and-socket joint, 265, 267t
Banting, ±rederick, 513
Bariatric surgery, 711
Baroreceptor(s), 439, 571
Baroreceptor refl
exes, 569–70, 571f
Barrett’s esophagus, 665
Basal body, 87
Basal conditions, 707
Basal metabolic rate (BMR), 500, 698,
707, 728
Basal nuclei, 398, 404, 405f, 412t
Base(s), 59–60.
See also
Acid-base balance
Basement membrane, 144, 145, 172, 174f
Base-pairing rules, for DNA, 127
Basilar artery, 593, 595f, 596f
Basilar membrane, 453
Basilic vein, 602f, 603, 607f
Basophils, 531–32, 535t
B cell(s), 532, 628–29, 630t, 631f, 632–33.
See also
B lymphocytes
B cell lymphoma, 637t
BeadChip tests, 546
Beaumont, William, 668
Bedsore, 173
Beeturia, 803
Bell-shaped curve, 924–26
Benign joint hypermobility syndrome, 263
Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), 841
Benign tumor, 104
Beriberi, 713–14
Berylliosis, 749
Beryllium, 53t, 749
Best, Charles Herbert, 513
Beta-2 agonists, 489t
Beta endorphins, 374
Beta globulins, 535, 536t
Assisted reproductive technologies (ART),
878–79
Association areas, of brain, 402
Asthma, 637t, 756
Astigmatism, 472
Astrocytes, 353, 361, 362f, 363t
Atelectasis, 765
Atherosclerosis, 63, 154, 542, 552, 581, 588
Atlantis
(space shuttle), 585
Atlantoaxial joint, 270t
Atlas, 221
Athletes and athletic performance.
See also
Exercise
cardiovascular system, 590
female reproductive system, 857, 859
hormones, 489
nutrition, 699, 726
weight lifting, 300
Atmospheric pressure, 8, 747, 750, 757
Atom(s), 4, 5f, 51t, 52–53, 55–58
Atomic number, 52
Atomic radiation, 53
Atomic weight, 52
ATP.
See
Adenosine triphosphate
ATPase, 291–92
ATP synthase, 946
Atria, 555
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), 513, 556, 790
Atrial syncytium, 565
Atrioventricular oriF
ce, 555
Atrioventricular sulcus, 556
Atrioventricular valve (AV valve), 555,
566–67, 571f, 573
Atrium,
40
Atrophy, 300
Auditory, 437
Auditory meatus, 192
Auditory nerve pathways, 458
Auditory ossicles, 451
Auditory tube, 453
Auricles, 450, 555, 593f, 608f
Auricular artery, posterior, 595f, 597
Auricular surfaces, 222, 223f
Autoantibodies, 641
Autocrine secretions, 483
Autograft, 186, 641
Autoimmune disease, 616
Autoimmunity, 639, 641, 643
Automated external deF
brillator (AED), 553
Automatic bladder, 802
Autonomic nervous system
general characteristics, 424
involuntary actions, 356, 411
nerve F
bers, 424
neurotransmitters, 428–31
peripheral nervous system, 411
sympathetic division, 424–26
Autoregulation, 790
Autosomal inheritance, 918, 920, 923
AV bundle, 567
Axial portion, 12, 207f
Axial skeleton, 192, 205t, 206
Axillary artery,
34,
597, 601f
Axillary border, 226
Axillary nerves, 421
Axillary region, 23, 25f, 622
Axillary vein,
34,
602f, 603, 607f
Aplastic anemia, 529t
Apocrine glands, 150, 152f, 153t, 180,
182t, 430t
Aponeuroses, 285, 312f
Apoproteins, 97, 703
Apoptosis, 75, 106, 109, 184, 910
Appendicitis, 687
Appendicular portion, 1, 12, 207f
Appendicular skeleton, 205t, 206
Appendix,
34
35,
687
Appetite control, 700t, 711
Apraxia, 402
Aquaporins, 814
Aqueous humor, 467–68
Arachnoid granulations, 386, 387f
Arachnoid mater, 385, 387f, 388f
Arbor vitae, 410
Arch of aorta,
34
37,
47,
593f, 595t, 898f
Arcuate arteries, 779, 780f
Arcuate nucleus, 699
Arcuate popliteal ligament, 276, 277f
Areola,
31,
862
Areolar tissue, 156, 157f, 162t
Aretaeus of Cappadocia, 513
Arginine, 135t, 705t
Aristolochia clematitis,
775
Aristotle, 896
Arm, and muscles, 312, 314t, 317f,
343,
349
Armstrong, Lance, 699, 726
Aromatase inhibitors, 489t, 865
Arrector pili muscle, 179
Arrhythmias, 572–73
Arsenic poisoning, 115, 530
Arterial blood pressure, 580, 582–85
Arteries, 574–76, 580t, 592–99, 600–601f.
See also
Cardiovascular system;
specif
c arteries
Arterioles, 574–76, 580t
Arteriosclerosis, 552, 581, 588
Arthritis, 261, 265, 278, 279t.
See also
Rheumatoid arthritis
Arthrology, 260
Arthroscopy, 274
Articular capsule, 272f
Articular cartilage, 194, 263, 265,
273,
275f
Articulations, 261
ArtiF
cial insemination, 878
ArtiF
cially acquired active immunity,
638, 639t
ArtiF
cially acquired passive immunity,
638, 639t
ArtiF
cial pacemaker, 573
ArtiF
cial respiration, 746
Arytenoid cartilages, 740–41
Asbestos, 749
Ascending aorta, 592
Ascending colon,
34
35,
49,
604f, 687
Ascending lumbar veins, 603, 607f
Ascending tract, 393–96
Ascites, 579, 726, 817
Ascorbic acid, 709, 716, 717t
Asian food guide pyramid, 724f
Asparagine, 135t, 705t
Aspartame, 701
Aspartic acid, 135t, 705t
Aspirin, 491
Assimilation, as characteristic of life, 8t
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