975
GLOSSARY
vasodilation
(vas
o-di-la
shun)
Increase
in the diameter of a blood vessel.
p. 576
vasomotor center
(vas
o-mo
tor sen
ter)
Neurons in the brainstem that
control the diameter of the arteries.
p. 587
vasopressin
(vas
o-pres
in)
Antidiuretic
hormone. p. 498
vein
(va
¯n)
Vessel that carries blood
toward the heart. p. 579
vena cava
(ve
¯n
ah ka
¯v
ah)
One of two
large veins that convey deoxyge-
nated blood to the right atrium of
the heart. p. 557
ventral root
(ven
tral roo-t)
Motor
branch of a spinal nerve by which it
attaches to the spinal cord. p. 420
ventricles
(ven
trı˘-klz)
Cavities,
such as brain ventricles F
lled
with cerebrospinal fl
uid, or heart
ventricles that contain blood.
pp. 363, 555
venule
(ven
u
¯l)
Vessel that carries
blood from capillaries to a vein.
p. 579
vertebral
(ver
te-bral)
Pertaining to
the bones of the spinal column.
p. 24
vertebral canal
(ver
te-bral kah-nal
)
Hollow area in vertebrae containing
the spinal cord. p. 12
vesicle
(ves
ı˘-kal)
Membranous,
cytoplasmic sac formed by an
infolding of the cell membrane.
p. 83
vestibule
(ves
tı˘-bu
¯l)
Space at the
opening to a canal. p. 453
villus
(vil
us)
Tiny, F
ngerlike
projection that extends outward
from the inner lining of the small
intestine (pl.,
villi
). p. 681
viscera
(vis
er-ah)
Organs in a body
cavity. p. 12
visceral
(vis
er-al)
Pertaining to the
contents of a body cavity. p. 12
visceral peritoneum
(vis
er-al per
ı˘-to-
ne
um)
Membrane that covers
organ surfaces in the abdominal
cavity. p. 14
visceral pleura
(vis
er-al ploo
rah)
Membrane that covers the surfaces
of the lungs. p. 12
visceroreceptive sense
(vis
′′
er-o-re
cep-
tiv sens)
Detecting changes in the
viscera. p. 440
viscosity
(vis-kos
ı˘-te)
Tendency for
a fl
uid to resist fl owing due to the
internal friction of its molecules.
p. 584
vital capacity
(vi
tal kah-pas
i-te)
The
maximum volume of air a person
can exhale after taking the deepest
breath possible. p. 753
bonds between the atoms of the
carbon chains. p. 64
upper limb
(uh
per lim)
Superior
appendage consisting of the arm,
forearm, and hand. p. 226
urea
(u-re
ah)
Nonprotein nitrogenous
substance produced as a result of
protein metabolism. p. 704
ureter
(u-re
ter)
Muscular tube that
carries urine from the kidney to the
urinary bladder. p. 798
urethra
(u-re
thrah)
Tube leading from
the urinary bladder to the outside of
the body. p. 800
uric acid
(u
rik as
id)
Product of nucleic
acid metabolism in the body. p. 798
urine
(u
rin)
Wastes and excess
water removed from the blood and
excreted by the kidneys into the
ureters to the urinary bladder and
out of the body through the urethra.
p. 785
uterine
(u
ter-in)
Pertaining to the
uterus. p. 852
uterine tube
(u
ter-in tu
¯b)
Tube that
extends from the uterus on each side
toward an ovary and transports sex
cells; fallopian tube or oviduct. p. 852
uterus
(u
ter-us)
Hollow muscular
organ in the pelvis of a female
where a fetus develops. p. 854
utricle
(u
trı˘-kl)
Enlarged portion of the
membranous labyrinth of the inner
ear. p. 459
uvula
(u
vu-lah)
±leshy portion of the
soft palate that hangs down above
the root of the tongue. p. 657
V
vaccine
(vak
se
¯n)
Preparation that
includes antigens used to stimulate
an immune response to prevent an
infectious disease. p. 638
vagina
(vah-ji
nah)
Tubular organ
that leads from the uterus to the
vestibule of the female reproductive
tract. p. 854
variably expressive
(va
re-ah-ble
eks
′′
pres
iv)
Phenotype whose
symptoms vary in intensity in
different people. p. 924
varicose veins
(var
ı˘-kos va
¯nz)
Abnormally swollen and enlarged
veins, especially in the legs. p. 582
vasa recta
(va
sah rek
tah)
Branch
of the peritubular capillary that
receives blood from the efferent
arterioles of juxtamedullary
nephrons. p. 785
vasoconstriction
(vas
o-kon-strik
shun)
Decrease in the diameter of a blood
vessel. p. 576
troponin
(tro
po-nin)
Protein that
functions with tropomyosin to block
muscle contraction until calcium
ions are present. p. 287
trypsin
(trip
sin)
Enzyme in pancreatic
juice that breaks down protein
molecules. p. 671
trypsinogen
(trip-sin
o-jen)
Substance
pancreatic cells secrete that is
enzymatically cleaved to yield
trypsin. p. 671
tubercle
(tu
ber-kl)
Small, rounded
process on a bone. p. 223
tuberosity
(tu
be
˘-ros
ı˘-te)
Elevation or
protuberance on a bone. p. 208
tubular reabsorption
(too
bu-lar re
ab-
sorp
shun)
Transport of substances
out of the renal tubule into the
interstitial fl
uid from which the
substances diffuse into peritubular
capillaries. p. 786
tubular secretion
(too
bu-lar se-kre
shun)
Movement of substances out of the
peritubular capillaries into the renal
tubule for excretion in the urine.
p. 786
tumor
(too
mor)
Tissue mass formed
when cells lose division control.
p. 104
tumor suppressor gene
(too
mor su
˘-
pres
or je
¯n)
A gene (DNA sequence)
that encodes a protein that ordinarily
inhibits cell division. p. 104
twitch
(twich)
Brief muscular contraction
followed by relaxation. p. 296
tympanic membrane
(tim-pan
ik
mem
bra
¯n)
Thin membrane that
covers the auditory canal and
separates the outer ear from the
middle ear; the eardrum. p. 450
U
ultratrace element
(ul
trah-tra
¯s el
e
˘-ment)
Basic chemical substance needed in
very small quantity. p. 52
umbilical
(um-bil
ı˘-kal)
Pertaining to
the navel p. 24
umbilical cord
(um-bil
ı˘-kal kord)
Cordlike structure that connects the
fetus to the placenta. p. 891
umbilical region
(um-bil
ı˘-kal re
jun)
Central portion of the abdomen.
p. 22
umbilicus
(um-bil
ı˘-kus)
Region to
which the umbilical cord was
attached; the navel. p. 891
unipolar neuron
(un
ı˘-po
lar nu
ron)
Neuron that has a single nerve F
ber
extending from its cell body. p. 360
unsaturated fat
(un-sat
u-ra
¯t
ed fat)
±at
molecule that includes unsaturated
fatty acids with one or more double
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