974
GLOSSARY
trachea
(tra
ke-ah)
Tubular organ that
leads from the larynx to the bronchi.
p. 742
transcellular fl
uid
(trans
sel
u-lar fl
oo
-
id) Part of the extracellular fl
uid,
including the fl
uid in special body
cavities. p. 811
transcription
(trans-krip
shun)
Manufacturing a complementary
RNA from DNA. p. 130
transcytosis
(trans
si-to
sis)
Combination of receptor-mediated
endocytosis and exocytosis that
moves particles through a cell.
p. 98
transfer RNA
(trans
fer RNA)
RNA
molecule that carries an amino acid
to a ribosome in protein synthesis;
tRNA. p. 131
translation
(trans-la
shun)
Assembly
of an amino acid chain according to
the sequence of base triplets in an
mRNA molecule. p. 131
transverse
(trans-vers
)
Plane that
divides a structure into superior and
inferior parts. p. 22
transverse colon
(trans-vers
ko
lon)
Part of the large intestine that extends
across the abdomen from right to left
below the stomach. p. 687
transverse tubule
(trans-vers
tu
bu
¯l)
Membranous channel that extends
inward from a muscle F
ber
membrane and passes through the
F ber. p. 288
triad
(tri
ad)
Group of three structures.
p. 288
tricuspid valve
(tri-kus
pid valv)
Heart
valve between the right atrium and
the right ventricle. p. 557
trigger zone
(trig
ger zo
¯n)
Sensitive
part of an axon where a nerve
impulse originates. p. 368
triglyceride
(tri-glis
er-ı¯d)
Lipid com-
posed of three fatty acids and a
glycerol molecule. p. 63
triiodothyronine
(tri
i-o
do-thi
ro-ne
¯n)
Type of thyroid hormone; T
3
.
p. 500
trisomy
(tri
so-me)
Condition in which
a cell has three chromosomes of a
particular type instead of two. p. 929
trochanter
(tro-kan
ter)
Broad process
on a bone. p. 208
trophoblast
(trof
o-blast)
Outer cells
of a blastocyst that give rise to cells
that become part of the placenta and
extraembryonic membranes. p. 880
tropic hormone
(tro
¯p
ik hor
mo
¯n)
Hormone that has an endocrine
gland as its target tissue. p. 492
tropomyosin
(tro
po-mi
o-sin)
Protein
that blocks muscle contraction until
calcium ions are present. p. 287
thrombin
(throm
bin)
Blood-clotting
enzyme that catalyzes formation of
F
brin from F
brinogen. p. 39
thrombocyte
(throm
bo-sı¯t)
Blood
platelet. p. 534
thrombocytopenia
(throm
bo-si
to-pe
ne-
ah)
Low number of platelets in the
circulating blood. p. 542
thromobopoietin
(throm
bo-poi
e
˘-tin)
A hormone that stimulates
megakaryocytes to differentiate from
hematopoietic stem cells. p. 534
thrombus
(throm
bus)
Blood clot that
remains where it forms in a blood
vessel. p. 541
thymosins
(thi
mo-sins)
Group of
peptides the thymus gland secretes
that increases production of certain
types of white blood cells. p. 512
thymus
(thi
mus)
Glandular organ in
the mediastinum, behind the sternum
and between the lungs. p. 512
thyroid gland
(thi
roid gland)
Endocrine
gland just below the larynx and in
front of the trachea that secretes
thyroid hormones. p. 499
thyroid-stimulating hormone
(thi
roid-
stim
u-la
¯t
eng hor
mo
¯n)
Hormone
secreted from the anterior pituitary
gland that controls secretion from
the thyroid gland; TSH. p. 496
thyroxine
(thi-rok
sin)
Hormone
secreted by the thyroid gland; T4.
p. 500
tidal volume
(tı¯d
al vol
u
¯m)
Volume of
air entering and leaving the lungs in
a respiratory cycle. p. 752
tissue
(tish
u)
Group of similar cells
that performs a specialized function.
p. 4
titin
(ti
tin)
Protein that attaches
myosin F
laments to z lines in
muscle. p. 287
T lymphocyte
(T lim
fo-sı¯t)
Type
of white blood cell that interacts
directly with antigen-bearing cells
and particles and secretes cytokines,
producing the cellular immune
response; T cell. p. 623
tonsil
(ton
sil)
Collection of lymphatic
tissue in the throat. p. 621
total lung capacity
(toh
tal lung kah-
pas
i-te)
Vital capacity plus
residual volume. p. 753
totipotent
(to-tip
o-tent)
Ability of a cell
to differentiate into any type of cell.
Only a fertilized ovum is totipotent.
p. 105
trabecula
(trah-bek
u-lah)
Branching
bony plate that separates irregular
spaces within spongy bone. p. 194
trace element
(tra
¯s el
e
˘-ment)
Basic
chemical substance needed in small
quantity. p. 52
systolic pressure
(sis-tol
ik presh
ur)
Arterial blood pressure reached
during the systolic phase of the
cardiac cycle. p. 580
T
tachycardia
(tak
e-kar
de-ah)
Abnormally rapid heartbeat. p. 572
tactile corpuscle
(tak
til kor
pus-l)
Sensory receptor close to the surface
of the skin that is sensitive to light
touch; Meissner’s corpuscle. p. 440
target cell
(tar
get sel)
Cell with speciF
c
receptors on which a hormone
exerts its effect. p. 16
tarsal
(tahr
sal)
Bone in the area
between the foot and leg. p. 24
tarsus
(tar
sus)
Ankle bones. p. 206
taste bud
(ta
¯st bud)
Organ containing
receptors associated with the sense
of taste. p. 448
telophase
(tel
o-fa
¯z)
Stage in mitosis
when newly formed cells separate.
p. 101
tendon
(ten
don)
Cordlike or bandlike
mass of white F
brous connective
tissue that connects a muscle to a
bone. p. 155
teratogen
(ter
ah-to-jen)
Chemical
or other environmental agent that
causes a birth defect. p. 892
testis
(tes
tis)
Primary male
reproductive organ; sperm cell-
producing organ (pl.,
testes
). p. 512
testosterone
(tes-tos
te
˘-ro
¯n)
Male sex
hormone secreted by the interstitial
cells of the testes. p. 833
tetanic contraction
(te
˘-tan
ik kon-
trak
shun)
Continuous, forceful
muscular contraction without
relaxation. p. 297
thalamus
(thal
ah-mus)
Mass of gray
matter at the base of the cerebrum
in the wall of the third ventricle.
p. 405
thermoreceptor
(ther
mo-re-sep
tor)
Sensory receptor sensitive to
temperature changes; heat and cold
receptors. p. 439
thiamine
(thi
ah-min)
Vitamin of the
B-complex group; vitamin B
1
. p. 713
thoracic
(tho-ras
ik)
Pertaining to the
chest. p. 12
thoracic cavity
(tho-ras
ik kav
i-te)
Hollow place in the chest. p. 12
threshold potential
(thresh
old po-
ten
shal)
Level of potential at
which an action potential or nerve
impulse is produced. p. 368
threshold stimulus
(thresh
old stim
u-lus)
Stimulation level that must be
exceeded to elicit a nerve impulse or
a muscle contraction. p. 296
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