973
GLOSSARY
suture
(soo
cher)
Immovable joint,
such as that between fl
at bones of
the skull. p. 205
sweat gland
(swet gland)
Exocrine
gland in skin that secretes a mixture
of water, salt, urea, and other bodily
wastes. p. 180
sympathetic nervous system
(sim
pah-
thet
ik ner
vus sis
tem)
Part of
the autonomic nervous system that
arises from the thoracic and lumbar
regions of the spinal cord. p. 424
symphysis
(sim
fı˘-sis)
Slightly movable
joint between bones separated by a
pad of F
brocartilage. p. 263
synapse
(sin
aps)
±unctional
connection between the axon of one
neuron and the dendrite or cell body
of another neuron or the membrane
of another cell type. p. 289
synaptic cleft
(sı˘-nap
tik kleft)
A narrow
extracellular space between the
presynaptic and postsynaptic
neurons. p. 290
synaptic knob
(sı˘-nap
tik nob)
Tiny
enlargement at the end of an axon
that secretes a neurotransmitter.
p. 356
synaptic potential
(sı˘-nap
tik po-ten
shal)
Electrical activity generated in the
space between two neurons. p. 371
synaptic transmission
(sı˘-nap
tik trans-
mish
un)
Communication of an
impulse from one neuron to the
next. p. 365
synchondrosis
(sin
kon-dro
sis)
Type
of joint in which bands of hyaline
cartilage unite bones. p. 262
syndesmosis
(sin
des-mo
sis)
Type
of joint in which long F
bers of
connective tissue unite bones.
p. 261
synergist
(sin
er-jist)
Muscle that
assists the action of a prime mover.
p. 304
synovial fl
uid
(sı˘no
ve-al fl oo
id)
±luid
that the synovial membrane
secretes. p. 264
synovial joint
(sı˘-no
ve-al joint)
±reely
movable joint. p. 263
synovial membrane
(sı˘-no
ve-al
mem
bra
¯n)
Membrane that forms
the inner lining of the capsule of a
freely movable joint. p. 163
synthesis
(sin
the
˘-sis)
Building large
molecules from bonding smaller
ones. p. 58
systemic circuit
(sis-tem
ik ser
kit)
Vessels that conduct blood between
the heart and all body tissues except
the lungs. p. 553
systole
(sis
to-le)
Phase of the cardiac
cycle when a heart chamber wall
contracts. p. 564
stressor
(stres
or)
±actor that can
stimulate a stress response. p. 513
stretch receptor
(strech re-sep
ter)
Sensory nerve ending that responds
to tension. p. 439
stretch refl
ex
(strech re
fl eks)
Muscle
contraction in response to stretching
the muscle. p. 444
stroke volume
(stro
¯k vol
u
¯m)
Volume
of blood the ventricle discharges
with each heartbeat. p. 582
structural formula
(struk
cher-al fo
¯r
mu-
lah)
Representation of the way
atoms bond in a molecule, using
symbols for each element and lines
to indicate chemical bonds. p. 57
subarachnoid space
(sub
ah-rak
noid
spa
¯s)
Space in the meninges
between the arachnoid mater and
the pia mater. p. 385
subatomic particles
(sub
ah-tom
ik
par
te
˘-kalz)
Parts of an atom,
including protons, electrons, and
neutrons. p. 4
subcutaneous
(sub
ku-ta
ne-us)
Loose
connective tissue layer that is
mostly fat and beneath the skin;
hypodermis. p. 172
sublingual
(sub-ling
gwal)
Beneath the
tongue. p. 661
submucosa
(sub
mu-ko
sah)
Layer of
the alimentary canal underneath the
mucosa. p. 654
substrate
(sub
stra
¯t)
Target of enzyme
action. p. 117
sucrase
(su
kra
¯s)
Digestive enzyme that
catalyzes the breakdown of sucrose.
p. 118
sucrose
(soo
kro
¯s)
Disaccharide; table
sugar. p. 62
sugar
(shoog
ar)
Sweet carbohydrate.
p. 62
sulcus
(sul
kus)
Shallow groove, such
as that between convolutions on the
surface of the brain (pl.,
sulci
). p. 398
summation
(sum-ma
shun)
Increased
force of contraction by a skeletal
muscle F ber when twitches occur
before the previous twitch relaxes.
p. 297
superF
cial
(soo
per-F sh
al)
Near the
surface. p. 21
superior
(su-pe
re-or)
Structure higher
than another structure. p. 21
supination
(soo
pı˘-na
shun)
Upward
or forward rotation of palm of hand.
p. 269
surface tension
(ser
fas ten
shun)
±orce
that holds moist membranes
together due to the attraction of
water molecules. p. 750
surfactant
(ser-fak
tant)
Substance
produced by the lungs that reduces
the surface tension in alveoli. p. 750
spermatogenesis
(sper
mah-to-jen
e
˘-sis)
Sperm cell production. p. 836
spermatogonium
(sper
mah-to-go
ne-um)
Undifferentiated spermatogenic cell
in the outer part of a seminiferous
tubule. p. 836
sphygmomanometer
(sfı¯g
mo-mah-
nom
e
˘-ter)
Instrument used for
measuring blood pressure. p. 582
spinal cord
(spi
nal kord)
Part of the
central nervous system extending
from the brainstem through the
vertebral canal. p. 387
spinal nerve
(spi
nal nerv)
Nerve that
arises from the spinal cord. p. 387
spiral organ
(spı¯ rul or
gan )
Organ
in the cochlear duct containing the
receptors for hearing. It consists of
hair cells and supporting cells. p. 455
spleen
(sple
¯n)
Large organ in the
upper left region of the abdomen
that processes old red blood cells.
p. 623
spongy bone
(spunj
e bo
¯n)
Bone that
consists of bars and plates separated
by irregular spaces; cancellous bone.
p. 194
squamous
(skwa
mus)
±lat or platelike.
p. 146
starch
(starch)
Polysaccharide common
in foods of plant origin. p. 62
static equilibrium
(stat
ik e
kwı˘-lib
re-
um)
Maintenance of balance when
the head and body are motionless.
p. 459
stem cell
(stem sel)
Undifferentiated
cell that can divide to yield two
daughter stem cells or a stem cell
and a progenitor cell. p. 105
stereoscopic vision
(ster
e-o-skop
ik
vizh
un)
The ability to perceive
objects as three-dimensional; depth
perception. p. 475
sternal
(ster
nal)
Pertaining to the
sternum. p. 24
steroid
(ste
roid)
Type of organic
molecule including complex rings of
carbon and hydrogen atoms. p. 64
stomach
(stum
ak)
Digestive organ
between the esophagus and the
small intestine. p. 665
strabismus
(strah-biz
mus)
Lack of
visual coordination. p. 465
stratiF
ed
(strat
ı˘-fı¯d)
Organized in
layers. p. 147
stratum basale
(stra
tum ba
sal)
Deepest layer of the epidermis,
where cells divide; stratum
germinativum. p. 173
stratum corneum
(stra
tum kor
ne-um)
Outer, horny layer of the epidermis.
p. 173
stress
(stres)
Response to factors
perceived as life-threatening. p. 513
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