972
GLOSSARY
skeletal muscle
(skel
e
˘-tal mus
l)
Type
of voluntary muscle tissue in
muscles attached to bones. p. 14
sliding f
lament model
(slı¯
ding F l
eh-
ment ma
dul)
Muscles contract
when the thin (actin) and thick
(myosin) F
laments move past each
other, shortening the skeletal muscle
cells. p. 291
small intestine
(smawl in-tes
tin)
Part
of the digestive tract extending from
the stomach to the cecum; consisting
of the duodenum, jejunum, and
ileum. p. 678
smooth muscle
(smoo-th mus
l)
Type
of involuntary muscle tissue in the
walls of hollow viscera; visceral
muscle. p. 163
sodium pump
(so
de-um pump)
Active transport mechanism that
concentrates sodium ions outside a
cell membrane. p. 365
solute
(sol
u
¯t)
Chemical dissolved in a
solution. p. 92
solution
(so-lu
shun)
Homogenous
mixture of chemicals (solutes) in a
dissolving medium (solvent). p. 92
solvent
(sol
vent)
Liquid portion of
a solution in which a solute is
dissolved. p. 92
somatic cell
(so-mat
ik sel)
Any cell of
the body other than the sex cells.
p. 100
somatic nervous system
(so-mat
-ik
ner
vus sis
tem)
Motor pathways
of the peripheral nervous system
that lead to the skin and skeletal
muscles. p. 411
somatostatin
(so-mat
o-sta
tin)
Hormone secreted by the pancreatic
islets that inhibits the release of
growth hormone. p. 511
somatotropin
(so
mah-to-tro
pin)
Growth hormone. p. 494
special sense
(spesh
al sens)
Sense
that stems from receptors
associated with specialized sensory
organs, such as the eyes and ears.
p. 438
species resistance
(spe
se
¯z re-zis
tans)
Natural ability of one type of
organism to resist infection by
pathogens that cause disease in
another type of organism. p. 626
spermatic cord
(sper-mat
ik kord)
Structure consisting of blood vessels,
nerves, the ductus deferens, and other
vessels extending from the abdominal
inguinal ring to the testis. p. 835
spermatid
(sper
mah-tid)
Intermediate
stage in sperm cell formation. p. 836
spermatocyte
(sper-mat
o-sı¯t)
Early
stage in sperm cell formation.
p. 836
serotonin
(se
ro-to
nin)
Vasoconstrictor
that blood platelets release when
blood vessels break, controlling
bleeding. Also a neurotransmitter.
p. 443
serous cell
(se
rus sel)
Glandular cell
that secretes a watery fl
uid (serous
uid) with a high enzyme content.
p. 152
serous fl
uid
(se
rus fl
oo
id)
Secretion of
a serous membrane. p. 152
serous membrane
(se
rus mem
bra
¯n)
Membrane that lines a cavity
without an opening to the outside of
the body. p. 12
serum
(se
rum)
±luid portion of
coagulated blood. p. 541
sesamoid bone
(ses
ah-moid bo
¯n)
Round bone within tendons adjacent
to joints. p. 193
set point
(set point)
Target value of a
physiological measure maintained
automatically in the body. p. 9
sex chromosome
(seks kro
mo-so
¯m)
Chromosome that carries genes
responsible for the development
of characteristics associated with
maleness or femaleness; an X or Y
chromosome. p. 919
sex-infl
uenced inheritance
(seks-in
fl oo-
enst in-her
ı˘-tens)
Transmission
of a trait dominant in one sex but
recessive in the other. p. 928
sex-limited inheritance
(seks
-lim
it-ed
in-her
ı˘-tens)
Transmission of a trait
expressed in one sex only. p. 928
sexually transmitted inFection
(sek
shoo-
ah-le trans-mi
ted in-fek
shun)
Infection transmitted from one
individual to another by direct
contact during sexual activity. p. 867
sigmoid colon
(sig
moid ko
lon)
S
-shaped part of the large intestine
between the descending colon and
the rectum. p. 687
signal transduction
(sig
nahl trans-
duk
shun)
Series of biochemical
reactions that allows cells to receive
and respond to messages coming in
through the cell membrane. p. 79
simple sugar
(sim
pl shoog
ar)
Monosaccharide. p. 62
single nucleotide polymorphism
(sing
el
nu
kle-o-tı¯d pol
e-mor
F z-em)
A
variant base at a particular place in
the genome that occurs in at least
1% of a population. p. 135
sinoatrial node
(si
no-a
tre-al no
¯d)
Specialized tissue in the wall of the
right atrium that initiates cardiac
cycles; the pacemaker; SA node.
p. 565
sinus
(si
nus)
Cavity or space in a bone
or other body part. p. 738
secretin
(se-kre
tin)
Hormone from the
small intestine that stimulates the
pancreas to release pancreatic juice.
p. 672
secretion
(se-kre
shun)
Substance
produced in and released from a
gland cell. p. 150
segmentation
(seg
′′
men-ta
shun)
Alternating contraction and
relaxation of circular muscle F
bers
that propels chyme through the
intestines. p. 654
selectively permeable
(se-le
˘k
tiv-le
per
me-ah-b
l)
Membrane that
allows some types of molecules
through but not others. p. 79
semen
(se
men)
±luid containing sperm
cells and secretions discharged
from the male reproductive tract at
ejaculation. p. 841
semicircular canal
(sem
ı˘-ser
ku-lar
kah-nal
)
Tubular structure in the
inner ear that contains the receptors
providing the sense of dynamic
equilibrium. p. 453
seminal vesicle
(sem
ı˘-nal ves
ı˘-kel)
One of a pair of pouches that adds
fructose and prostaglandins to sperm
as semen forms. p. 840
seminiFerous tubule
(sem
ı˘-nif
er-us
tu
bu
¯l)
Tubule within the testes
where sperm cells form. p. 835
senescence
(se
˘-nes
ens)
Aging. p. 907
sensation
(sen-sa
shun)
A feeling
resulting from the brain
s
interpretation of sensory nerve
impulses. p. 438
sensory adaptation
(sen
so-re ad
ap-
ta
shun)
Sensory receptors
becoming unresponsive or inhibition
along the CNS pathways leading
to sensory regions of the cerebral
cortex after constant repeated
stimulation. p. 440
sensory area
(sen
so-re a
re-ah)
Part of
the cerebral cortex that receives and
interprets sensory nerve impulses.
p. 401
sensory nerve
(sen
so-re nerv)
Nerve
composed of sensory nerve F
bers.
p. 412
sensory neuron
(sen
so-re nu
ron)
Neuron that transmits an impulse
from a receptor to the central
nervous system. p. 360
sensory receptor
(sen
so-re re
sep
tor)
Specialized structure associated
with the peripheral end of a
sensory neuron speciF
c to
detecting a particular sensation
and triggering a nerve impulse in
response. p. 355
serosa
(se
¯r-o
sah)
Outer covering of the
alimentary canal. p. 654
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