971
GLOSSARY
S
saccule
(sak
u
¯l)
Saclike cavity that
makes up part of the membranous
labyrinth of the inner ear. p. 459
sacral
(sa
kral)
Pertaining to the F
ve
fused (pelvic) vertebrae at the distal
end of the spinal column. p. 24
saddle joint
(sad
l joint)
Two bones
joined each with a convex
and concave surface that are
complementary. p. 267
sagittal
(saj
i-tal)
Plane or section that
divides a structure into right and left
portions. p. 22
salivary gland
(sal
ı˘-ver-e gland)
Gland, associated with the mouth,
that secretes saliva. p. 660
salt
(sawlt)
Compound produced by a
reaction between an acid and a base.
p. 59
saltatory conduction
(sal
tah-tor-e
kon-duk
shun)
Nerve impulse
conduction that seems to jump from
one node to the next. p. 371
SA node
(no
¯d)
Sinoatrial node. p. 565
sarcolemma
(sar
ko-lem
ah)
Cell
membrane of a muscle F
ber. p. 287
sarcomere
(sar
ko-me
¯r)
Structural and
functional unit of a myoF
bril.
p. 287
sarcoplasm
(sar
ko-plazm)
Cytoplasm
in a muscle F
ber. p. 287
sarcoplasmic reticulum
(sar
ko-plaz
mik
re
˘-tik
u-lum)
Membranous network
of channels and tubules in a
muscle F
ber, corresponding to the
endoplasmic reticulum of other cells.
p. 288
satellite cells
(sat
il-lı¯te selz)
Glia in
the peripheral nervous system that
support ganglia. p. 363
saturated fat
(sat
u-ra
¯t
ed fat)
±at
molecule that contains only fatty
acid molecules with as many
hydrogen atoms as possible, and
therefore no double-bonded carbon
atoms. p. 63
Schwann cell
(shwahn sel)
Type of
neuroglia that surrounds a F
ber
of a peripheral nerve, forming the
neurilemma and myelin. p. 356
sclera
(skle
rah)
White F
brous outer
layer of the eyeball. p. 465
scrotum
(skro
tum)
Pouch of skin that
encloses the testes. p. 833
sebaceous gland
(se
˘-ba
shus gland)
Skin gland that secretes sebum. p. 179
sebum
(se
bum)
Oily secretion of the
sebaceous glands. p. 180
secondary immune response
(sek
un-der
e
i-mun
re-spons
)
Immune system
s
response to subsequent encounters
with a nonself antigen. p. 637
resting tidal volume
(res
ting tı¯d
al
vol
u
¯m)
Volume of air entering and
leaving the lungs in a respiratory
cycle at rest. p. 752
reticular F
ber
(re
˘-tik
u-lar F
ber)
Threadlike structure within a
network of like structures in
connective tissue. p. 156
reticular formation
(re
˘-tik
u-lar fo
¯r-
ma
shun)
Complex network of
nerve F
bers in the brainstem that
arouses the cerebrum. p. 409
reticulocyte
(re
˘-tik
u-lo-sı¯t)
Immature
red blood cell that has a network of
F brils in its cytoplasm. p. 527
retina
(ret
ı˘-nah)
Inner layer of the
eye wall that contains the visual
receptors. p. 469
retinal
(ret
ı˘-nal)
A form of vitamin A;
retinene. p. 473
retinene
(ret
ı˘-ne
¯n)
Chemical precursor
of rhodopsin, a visual pigment.
p. 473
retraction
(re
˘-trak
shun)
Movement of
a part toward the back. p. 269
retroperitoneal
(ret
ro-per
ı˘-to-ne
al)
Behind the peritoneum. p. 776
reversible reaction
(re-ver
sı˘-b
l re-
ak
shun)
Chemical reaction in
which the end products can react
again, yielding the original reactants.
p. 59
rhodopsin
(ro-dop
sin)
Light-sensitive
pigment in the rods of the retina;
visual purple. p. 473
ribofl
avin
(ri
bo-fl a
vin)
A vitamin of
the B-complex group; vitamin B
2
.
p. 714
ribonucleic acid
(ri
bo-nu-kle
ik
as
id)
Single stranded polymer of
nucleotides, in which each nucleotide
includes a phosphate group, a
nitrogen-containing base (adenine,
uracil, cytosine, or guanine), and the
sugar ribose; RNA. p. 68
ribose
(ri
bo
¯s)
5-carbon sugar in RNA.
p. 125
ribosomal RNA
(ri-bo-so
¯m
al)
Type
of RNA that forms part of the
ribosome; rRNA. p. 132
ribosome
(ri
bo-so
¯m)
Organelle
composed of RNA and protein that
is a structural support for protein
synthesis. p. 82
RNA
Ribonucleic acid. p. 68
rod
(rod)
Type of light receptor that
provides colorless vision. p. 473
rotation
(ro-ta
shun)
Movement turning
a body part on its longitudinal axis.
p. 269
round window
(rownd win
do)
Membrane-covered opening between
the inner ear and the middle ear.
p. 453
renal pelvis
(re
nal pel
vis)
Cavity in
a kidney that channels urine to the
ureter. p. 776
renal plasma threshold
(re
nal plaz
mah
thresh
old)
Concentration of a
substance in blood at which it
begins to be excreted in the urine.
p. 792
renal tubule
(re
nal tu
bu
¯l)
Part of a
nephron that extends from the renal
corpuscle to the collecting duct. p. 779
renin
(re
nin)
Enzyme that kidneys
release that maintains blood
pressure, plasma sodium, and blood
volume. p. 506
renin-angiotensin system
(re
nin-an
′′
je-o-
ten
sin sis
tem)
An enzyme, renin,
that converts angiotensinogen to
angiotensin, ultimately stimulating
aldosterone secretion. p. 506
repair enzyme
(re-pa
¯r
en
zı¯m)
Protein that removes mismatched
nucleotides from a section of
DNA and replaces them with
complementary nucleotides. p. 137
replication
(rep
lı˘-ka
shun)
Copying of
a DNA molecule. p. 127
repolarization
(re-po
lar-ı˘-za
shun)
Returning the cell membrane
potential to resting potential. p. 369
reproduction
(re
pro-duk
shun)
Offspring formation. p. 18
residual volume
(re-zid
u-al vol
u
¯m)
Volume of air remaining in the lungs
after the most forceful expiration.
p. 752
resorption
(re-sorp
shun)
Decomposition
of a structure as a result of
physiological activity. p. 200
respiration
(res
pı˘-ra
shun)
Breathing.
p. 736
respiratory center
(re-spi
rah-to
re sen
ter)
Part of the brainstem that controls
breathing depth and rate. p. 409
respiratory capacity
(re-spi
rah-to
re kah-
pas
ı˘-te)
The sum of any two or
more respiratory volumes. p. 752
respiratory cycle
(re-spi
rah-to
re si
kl)
An inspiration followed by an
expiration. p. 752
respiratory membrane
(re-spi
rah-to
re
mem
bra
¯n)
Membrane composed of
a capillary wall, an alveolar wall, and
their respective basement membranes
through which blood and inspired air
exchange gases. p. 760
respiratory volume
(re-spi
rah-to
re
vol
u
¯m)
Any one of several distinct
volumes of air in the lungs. p. 752
resting potential
(res
ting po-ten
shal)
Difference in electrical charge
between the inside and outside of an
undisturbed nerve cell membrane.
p. 366
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