69
CHAPTER TWO
Chemical Basis of Life
TABLE
2.8
|
Organic Compounds in Cells
Compound
Elements Present
Building Blocks
Functions
Examples
Carbohydrates
C,H,O
Simple sugar
Provide energy, cell structure
Glucose, starch
Lipids
C,H,O (often P)
Glycerol, fatty acids,
phosphate groups
Provide energy, cell structure
Triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids
Proteins
C,H,O,N (often S)
Amino acids
Provide cell structure, enzymes, energy
Albumins, hemoglobin
Nucleic acids
C,H,O,N,P
Nucleotides
Store information for the synthesis of
proteins, control cell activities
RNA, DNA
(a)
(b)
(c)
(e)
(f)
FIGURE 2.23
These three-dimensional (space-F
lling)
models show the relative sizes of several important molecules:
(
a
) water, (
b
) carbon dioxide, (
c
) glycine (an amino acid),
(
d
) glucose (a monosaccharide), (
e
) a fatty acid, and (
f
) collagen
(a protein). White = hydrogen, red = oxygen, blue = nitrogen,
black = carbon.
(d)
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